> ENGLISH TRANSCRIPTS

Trees – HEKS-EPER – Focus Groups

Transcripts of two focus groups on trees and tree products conducted in the rural Grand Anse in early 2018. The research was part of a study commissioned by the Swiss NGO, HEKS-EPER. These particular focus groups concern the total use of trees, specifically the fruit, charcoal and lumber value chains.

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Below are translations for two focus groups on trees and tree products conducted in the rural Grand Anse in early 2018.  The research was part of a study commissioned by the Swiss NGO, HEKS-EPER. These particular focus groups concern the total use of trees, specifically the fruit, charcoal and lumber value chains.

List of Focus Groups

Trees, Renal (Grand Anse)

Focus Group conducted 2/02/18

Participants:

#2, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education

#5, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education

#15, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade

#16, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer

#17, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 10th grade

#18, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school

#19, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education

#20, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education

#41, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education

 

Trees Guillotte (Grand Anse)

Date conducted: 02-Feb-18

Participants:

#1: Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma

#2: Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education

#3: Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade

#10: Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma

#15: Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma

#16 : Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma

#17: Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma

#18: Leon Ademise, Female, 78 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, No Education

#19: Leon Jasmine, Female, 22 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, High School Diploma

#20: Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma

#26 Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade

Types of Trees

##Favorites

##Trees vs. Crops and Livestock

##Trees and Mysticism

Fruit Trees

##Seasons

##Selling and Market

##Mangos

##Ownership of Trees

Wood Trees

##Lumber

##Other Uses

Trees as Fuel

##Charcoal

##Wood Fuel

##Stealing Wood to Make Charcoal

Caring for Trees

##Planting

##Grafting

##Diseases

##Preferring Assistance

Types of Trees

##Tree Types

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Number 3. Well, the trees that are most important for us are Mango trees. After that, Breadfruit, Coconut and Soursop – but recently Soursop fruit are spoiled by “limon” (type of fungus).

….

Tim: Ok. What about you? What other trees do you have?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Number 2. We had Custard Apple trees, but we lost them all after the hurricane.

Marco/Islande: What about now? What type of trees do you have most of?

Tim: I see that there are a few trees still standing. Yes you, please go ahead.

5 Minit

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Number 26. We have Avocado trees, Lime trees, Orange, Grapefruit, a lot of almonds…we also have a lot of non-fruiting trees, such as Mesquite (Prosopis Juliflora), Log Wood (Haematoxylum campechianum), and many Cedar (Cedrela odorata L.). If you look around you will see other types of trees in the area: Apricot, Royal Palm (Roystonea borinquena)…there are lots of trees in the area, but the majority of them were destroyed. There are also Mahogony (Swietenia mahagoni) trees. And other trees whose names we don’t know.

Tim: How do you use these different trees? For example, do you cover your house with a certain type of tree?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, we build our houses with several types of trees, but we don’t cover our houses with them.

Tim: What wood? What types of trees?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Let’s see, the trees we use for construction are Bitter Wood (Simarouba spp.), woz (Samyda dodecandra Jacq.) and Log Wood, which serves as pillars…there is another tree called Wild Sapodilla (Sapotaceae family) in the area that is used to build houses. We also use West Indian Laurel (Calophyllum calaba L) trees to build houses.

Tim: Ok, when you say you use them to build houses, what do you mean? Do you use them to make planks?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It depends on the tree. There are several trees we use to make pillars, since not all houses are made with iron rebar pillars. Some trees serve as beams for framing the roof. And there are others that make planks for the floor and door of the house.

Tim: Ok

Islande: Does anyone else have something to add? What about you, Number 20?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Hmm, what she said is true, but there were many more trees before. For example, we had many Lime trees, which are very useful. The hurricane came and destroyed all of the Lime trees, especially in my yard. Even if the tree survived, the harvest was ruined. And those that remain haven’t produced again.

….

Tim: And what about other fruit? Like Mangoes?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): During hurricanes Mangoes fell to the ground… We still have Coconuts. Breadfruit Nuts (Bocconia frutescens) used to be an important tree crop for us, but now we hardly have any left.

Tim: Was the harvest lost for good? Or just in the short-term?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): We lost everything.

Tim: Ok. What about you? What other trees do you have?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Number 2. We had Custard Apple trees, but we lost them all after the hurricane.

Marco/Islande: What about now? What type of trees do you have most of?

Tim: I see that there are a few trees still standing. Yes you, please go ahead

….

Islande: Do you have Kenèp (Melicoccus bijugatus) here?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): In the month of July. We lost a lot to the hurricane…

Islande: How about Grapefruit?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): The hurricane destroyed them all.

#16: No it was the Natcom antennae.

Islande: The antennae? What makes you say that?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Since Natcom installed the antennae, the Grapefruit trees…

#16: Yes, as soon as the antennae arrived all of the Grapefruit fell and rotted.

Audience: And our Oranges. Even the Coffee was lost.

Tim: Coffee as well?

#16: Yes, we lost it all.

Tim: There’s no more Coffee?

Audience: No!

Tim: When was the antennae installed?

#16: Oh, a long time ago…

Tim: 2 years? 3 years?

Audience: Longer that!

#16: Since that time we lost all of our gardens.

Tim: Natcom has only been in the country for 7-8 years.

Marco: But, are you sure the antennae was responsible…?

25 Minit

#16: Yes

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): That’s what people say, but we can’t be sure.

Tim: It was around then that harvests started to decline?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes, it was all ruined. All the Coffee.

Tim: There’s no Coffee at all now?

Audience: No, there’s no Coffee.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): You’ll find some.

Islande: Was the Coffee under the “skolit” affected?[1]

#16: The “Skolit” drained the spring that fed the Coffee.

Audience: Something black spread on the Coffee trees, the same thing that covers the Soursop fruit…

Tim: And you don’t have Cacao either now?

#16: A few trees remain.

*****

Tim: Well! We’ll start now. I already explained what we are doing. Now we will just ask some questions. We’ll start with trees. So, what trees do you have around here? You can answer, 18.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): What trees do we have here? We have Mangoes, we have Avocados, we have Bitter Wood, we have Mahogany. You understand?

Tim. Yes, and what else?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  And breadfruit.

Islande: There’s something you’re forgetting. You’re not saying your number when you speak.

Tim: Yes! When you say something it’s so we can find your name on the list.

Tim: What other trees do you have?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): We have breadfruit.

Tim: Yes, they just said that. What else?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): Breadfruit.

Tim: Yes.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We have papayas.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): kanpech trees

Tim: Kanpech?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): Kanpech, kanpech

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Mesquite.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years, 4 children, farmer, no education): We have Mesquite.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): And we have Mahagony.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 year, 8 children, farmer):  Guaba

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years, 9 children, farmer, no education): We have Gumbo Limbo.

Tim: Gumbo Limbo.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years, 4 children, farmer, no education): We have Maiden Plum

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years, 9 children, farmer, no education): We have Mombin (Hog Plum).

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We have lots of trees. We have all kinds of trees.

….

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): We have another good crop.

Tim: What?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Apples.

Tim: What apple?

Islande: Ha! You never said that!

Tim: Apples, which apple?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Cashew apples, native apples, the ones they make nuts with.

Tim: OK.

Tim: When do you harvest them?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They’re ready in June, July.

Tim: June, July and when are they done, July?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Marco: Ok, it starts in June and ends the same.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: They start again at the same time, but are they important to you?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes, it is important to us because it sells at a high price.

Tim: And you have much here…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, the storm destroyed most of them.

Tim: You did not plant them… you did not plant them again?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, I planted some again.

Tim: You’ve planted them?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: When?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): January.

Tim: Well! Let’s start talking about boards, lumber. Have we talked about boards?

##Favorites

Marco: What’s most important to you?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Mango, Breadfruit and Coconut.

Islande: And you, what do you find most useful?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): The same. Breadfruit, Mango, Coconut. Breadfruit is very important for me.

Islande: What makes them so important?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Because they provide nourishment. I am able to feed my children with them.

Tim: What fetches the highest price in the market?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Breadfruit sells for a lot.

Tim: Is there only one variety of Breadfruit? Or do you cultivate several varieties?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): There are several…

Audience: We have two varieties.

Tim: What about Mangoes?

Audience: There are several varieties.

Tim: What type of Mango sells best?

Audience: Mango yil, Mango kòn, Mango kawòt, Mango kakòn

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are other Mangoes that sell even better, but we don’t have them here. They are called madan blan and fransik.

Islande: What about here? Which Mangoes do you sell?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Mango kakònlabenyillabich.

Tim: Why don’t you plant fransik and madan blan if they sell better?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We can’t get them…

Tim: You can’t find them?

Audience: Sometimes we plant them, but they don’t take.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The soil is too dry.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We’ve tried planting them, but we didn’t succeed.

Tim: Ok.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They turn into other varieties. When I planted a Mango madan blan, it produced another variety of Mango.

Islande: I have another question. There is a type of Mango that is almost exclusively found in the Grand Anse. Do you have that Mango here? Do you plant it?

Audience: We have it, but not many trees.

#1/#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  The hurricane wreaked the trees. There were only a few left..

Marco: Ok, but returning to the Mangoes you still have, are there any big-time merchants that buy them from you?

Tim: Is there a tree that you don’t want at all?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, no, no

Islande: No, let him speak. Each person has their own opinion.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Lucena causes a lot of trouble. You might plan on doing something with your land, but if Lucena seeds spread to it then they will completely take over the plot.

Tim: You can’t remove the Lucena?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No, it’s not possible.

Islande: Does anyone else have experience with a tree that you don’t like? Number 16?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  You might not have a use for Lucena, but I think it’s still important. It enriches the soil in place. And it feeds cows and goats.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes, for livestock forage. We also use it to make charcoal.

….

Tim: OK, we were talking about trees. What is your favorite tree?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Well, we like all trees.

Marco: Is there one you like more?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): We love Cashews. We love Breadfruit.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): All the trees, since we see they are important, we take care of them.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): We love Ash, too. We can cut them down and saw them.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): They are all useful.

Tim: They’re all useful?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, they’re all useful

Tim: Well, in the end… Why are they useful. What do you get from them? You get fruit? You get Mangoes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, they bear fruit.

Tim: What else? What do you get from Mahagony?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):

To cut, to make boards, to make furniture.

Tim: Boards?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Tables, beds, furniture.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): To make coffins…

Tim: Coff…?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Coffins.

#: Ash, Ash.

Tim: Ash?

#: Ash is good for caskets.

Tim: Ash, for making coffins?

#: Yes.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: OK. I see you cover houses with Palm fronds, right?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Vetiver.

Tim: Vetiver?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: You make houses with it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, vetiver, we cover them with it, for the roof.

Tim But, you don’t use wood?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, the house is made of wood.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Kanpech poles.

Tim: Kanpech?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, Kanpech.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Star Apple.

Tim: Star Apple, Star Apples also give you fruit.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes.

5 minutes

Tim: So, you sometimes cut down Star Apple trees?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, we mean…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  There are two Star Apple trees, Kayimites, one to eat, one not for eating.

Tim: There are two types?

[beginning on page 19]

Marco: What’s most important?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Grapefruit.

Tim: Grapefruit?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: Well, what tree do you like the least?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: We like them all. There aren’t any we don’t like.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): The only tree we don’t like is the Log Wood, because it has too many thorns.

Tim: Are there no trees that dry out the land?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Mesquite.

Tim: Mesquite, you don’t want them around?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Mesquite is a good wood.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): It sounds like a stick of water and it has thorns.

Tim: Does it have thorns? Does it take a lot of water?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes, it has thorns but it’s important. It takes the water from the earth.

Tim: Is there a tree that sucks the water from the earth?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes, Trumpet.

Tim: Trumpet? But you like it anyway?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Gumbo Limbo (gomye).

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Guaba, Guaba.

Marco: Number 17, what do Trumpets do for the soil?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Trumpet grows on the ground. It does’t dry up the water, it puts it into the ground.  The tree that drains the soil is Satanye.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Zatanye. Avocado.

Marco: What number?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Avocados dry the soil too, Avocado.

Tim: And Neem (Indian Neem). Do you have Neems around here?

#: No, we have Lila.

Islande: That’s it, that’s it, yes.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Neem.

Tim: Neem does not dry the soil?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  It doesn’t take up the water.

Tim: You like the Neem?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes.

Tim: So, you love all trees.

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: We love all trees!

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It’s good for fever. We like it.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Another tree that is superior is Sweet Orange.

Tim: You have a lot of those?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Well, we have them, yes.

Tim: They are good?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): yes.

15 minutes

Marco: Well, if we you had to choose out of all the trees you have, if you were to choose one of them, out of all the trees you have listed, which one is the most important?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Out of all of the trees there’s not one that’s not important for us.

Tim: Choose one you love most of all.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): One that’s our favorite.

Marco: Yes,

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): In all the trees …

Marco: The one you love the most, that’s the most useful.

Islande: You, yes, according to you, which is your favorite?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): The tree I like, I like the Log Wood. I like Mahagony, I like Breadfruit.

Islande: One, why?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): It makes great beds.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): I like Eucalyptus

Island: why?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It’s good for building. I sell them myself.

Tim: Hmmmm

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It’s good for a house, I do not use cement

Tim: Number 20, what tree do you like the most?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): The tree I like the most, Breadfruit.

Tim: Breadfruit you eat?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: Okay. #5

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): I like the tree we call Rose Wood. I like it because it makes beautiful furniture for the house.

Islande: Nice chairs.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes, it’s good for building, and for furniture.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I love it. You can cut it or dry it if you need to have a home or need to make furniture.

Tim: OK, you. #2

Islande: You Ms. 41

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Who, me?

Islande: Yes.

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): My favorite tree? Mango.

Tim: For food.

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Yes, I eat Mango.

Islande: No. 2.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): My favorites are Lime and Orange.

Islande: Just one.

Tim: Because you can sell them, or because they are useful to you?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): It is useful for me because when I need to make 10 cents, a little money, that’s where I get it.

Marc: Ok, you have Limes, you have Lime trees?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, I’ve removed them.

Marco: But you had them.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes, we had them.

Marc: OK.

Tim: And you want to have them again. And 18?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): I love Breadfruit.

Marco: Breadfruit Seed trees?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Why, because I get Breadfruit seeds from it. I like to eat the seeds.

Marco: But is it useful to you?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, it’s helpful to me, the Breadfruit tree.

Tim: OK.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I love the Mango tree, because when we have Mangoes the children don’t give me any trouble. They go eat a Mango.

##Uses of Trees

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): All the trees, since we see they are important, we take care of them.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): We love Ash, too. We can cut them down and saw them.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): They are all useful.

Tim: They’re all useful?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, they’re all useful

Tim: Well, in the end… Why are they useful. What do you get from them? You get fruit? You get Mangoes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, they bear fruit.

Tim: What else? What do you get from Mahagony?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):

To cut, to make boards, to make furniture.

Tim: Boards?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Tables, beds, furniture.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): To make coffins…

Tim: Coff…?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Coffins.

#: Ash, Ash.

Tim: Ash?

#: Ash is good for caskets.

Tim: Ash, for making coffins?

#: Yes.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: OK. I see you cover houses with Palm fronds, right?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Vetiver.

Tim: Vetiver?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: You make houses with it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, vetiver, we cover them with it, for the roof.

Tim But, you don’t use wood?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, the house is made of wood.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Kanpech poles.

Tim: Kanpech?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, Kanpech.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Star Apple.

Tim: Star Apple, Star Apples also give you fruit.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes.

5 minutes

Tim: So, you sometimes cut down Star Apple trees?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, we mean…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  There are two Star Apple trees, Kayimites, one to eat, one not for eating.

Tim: There are two types?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal): yes

Tim: Oh! what else? What you make baskets with around here?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Latanye Palms.

Tim: Anything else?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, Royal Palm, when it gets to a certain height you might cut it down. Do you understand?

Tim: OK that was No. 18? We are being careless. Everyone please start by saying your number.

Marco: Each speaker, start by saying the number you have in your hands, then say what you have to say.

Tim: Yes, if we don’t shout to say OK. No. 19, what do you make, you say you make baskets with latanye, OK! That’s 15. What else?

Marco: Number 17, what do you do?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Palms.

Tim: You don’t have Bamboo?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Bamboo, too. We make them with Bamboo.

Tim: Do you make traps to sell to fishermen?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: You make the traps with Bamboo?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

Islande: Do any of you who are here make fish traps?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: We make traps, and put them in fresh water.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  But not in the ocean.

Tim: But you don’t fish yourselves?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Well, yes.

Tim: You fish in the sea?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, not in the sea, in freshwater, in the river.

Tim: That was 18. What kind of fish do you catch?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Ah! We catch teta, barigon, mullet, etc. Several kinds of fish, lots of fish!

Islande: Ah, No. 16 was saying something. Do you make traps? 16?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It wasn’t me?

Island: Uh, huh.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): yes!

Islande. You also put out traps?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes

Tim: In rivers?

Islande: Where do you put them?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Since the water is deep and runs under the trap, we cut off the water and block the fish so we can catch them.

Islande: Ah! OK. And what do you make the traps with?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): With Bamboo, we get the Bamboo and we weave it, we braid it into traps.

Islande: Ah, you plait it?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): yes.

Islande: You find Bamboo then you weave a trap?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes. I cut the Bamboo, I weave it, I dry it to harden it, then I tie it to fasten it, and the it’s nn bari’l I killed the thread again, and then bait it, set it, and wait.

Tim: Do you ever make traps and sell them to open-water fishermen?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, we don’t do that.

Tim: You don’t?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): No, I don’t.

Tim: You don’t do that? OK. What else do you do? Do you sell wood for making dugout canoes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes!

Tim: What wood is best?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Mango.

Tim: Mango, 15 says Mango. What else?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Momben.

Tim: What else?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Mango and Momben.

Tim: Well, so do you know Momben? There is a seed that floats in the water, you know it?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Momben?

Tim: Yes, we know, it has large seeds, isn’t that Momben?

Islande: It has big seeds.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Those seeds, do people come to buy them?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, they don’t.

Tim: OK. They have a tree that gives you a sort of black milk, do you know this tree? Do you use it, do you know it?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Fige.

Tim: What?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Fige Modi.

Tim: Yes, what’s it called?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Fige

Tim: Fige?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, Fige Modi

Islande: #16 What?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Fige Modi

Islande: Fige Modi, OK!

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It has a seed that makes a glue when you boil it.

Tim: And you can sell that?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, we don’t sell it.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  We sometimes make it but we don’t sell it.

Tim: So you can make it?

#17 Yes, we know how, but it’s not useful for anything.

Tim: But you make it to sell it?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  We do it, but we don’t sell it.

Islande: But do you sell it?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No.

#17 We don’t sell it, but we know places where they do sell it, though.

Tim: Who does that?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  In the marketplace

Islande: Where do you see them selling?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  My mother-in-law sometimes makes it to go sell it somewhere else. She gathers seeds, boils them, and goes off to sell it.

Tim: OK! So, people from the coast they don’t come buy seeds, they buy the glue already made?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, they buy it ready-made. If you offer it to them they’ll buy it.

Interviewer: But they do not come buy it around here?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  No, they don’t buy from us.

Tim: OK, what other things do you get from trees that are useful for you, or people from other places?

Tim: Kisa ankò?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes.

Tim: What else?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  There’s something called Kakonn.

Tim: Kakonn.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Kakonn.

Tim: What is that?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  It has red seeds. They’re like a knee, what’s inside a knee.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  They put it in a scarf.

#17 They put it into a scarf.

Tim: A scarf?

Islande: That you put around your neck.

Tim: Of course! To look nice.

Marco: Ok, ok.

Tim: To look nice.

Marco: Scarf.

10 minutes

Islande: They wear them to look good, but also as a sort of collar. Like a scout, they put it around their neck to let people know they’re in scouting. They put that around their neck, like a piece of fabric, and it serves as a barrier, to hold what you put in there.

Marco: Like a collar.

Tim: Is there anything else you were thinking?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): There’s another thing, like Sapodilla.

Tim: Why is that good?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): It’s produces a fruit. It has seeds like a Mango tree.

Tim: And what to do with the seeds?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  They eat them, and they sell them in the market. Sapodilla.

Islande: You don’t have Castor Bean trees around here?

Voice: yes! A lot!.

Island: Good, and you didn’t mention that?.

Tim: You didn’t mention it! Laugh: ha ha ha! Well, what else?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Spanish Lime.

Tim: Spanish Lime. To eat?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Yes.

Islande: You don’t have calabash trees here?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: Yes.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): There are Papaya trees.

Tim: What do you say, 20?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Papaya.

Tim: Papaya.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It gives you a fruit.

Tim: It produces a fruit. A vegetable.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes

….

##Trees vs. Crops and Livestock

Islande: Ok, but I need to know. What is more important: charcoal or animals?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Animals?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Livestock, like goats?

Tim: Yes

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Our livestock are more important than charcoal.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The reason why people make so much charcoal is because they don’t have enough animals to raise money. You can sell them in the market. Hurricane Matthew killed a lot of our livestock.

Tim: Since the hurricane passed, people make more charcoal?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Matthew killed [the livestock], so we have no other choice but to make charcoal.

Tim: Is there no organization that distributes livestock in the area?

#16 : Yes, EPER

Tim: What did they provide?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): They gave us the school…

Tim: Between your garden and animals, what is more important?

Audience: They’re both important!

Islande: Ok, but if you had an emergency, what would you sell first?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): A livestock animal

Audience: An animal

Islande: What type of animal?

Audience: A goat, a cow, it depends on the situation.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Goat, sheep…

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Maybe one sheep isn’t enough to cover the costs, in that case you would need to sell a cow.

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Or a pig

Marco: Does that mean that your livestock is even more important than your garden?

Audience: No, they’re both good. But gardens are easier to maintain.

Islande: Wait, wait, let’s let Number 3 talk.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): If I had to flee, than the decision would be easy. My cow can run (laughter).

Tim: (Laughter). Ok, so you would take the cow?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

Islande: You can’t run with your land?

Tim: (Laughter) That would be something!

Audience: (Laughter)

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): I would take a handful of manioc roots along with the cow.

Tim: Ok, but if you had to choose?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): You have to choose the more valuable one…

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The cow is more valuable.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): The way I see it, each is different. If you need money fast, then you sell an animal. The garden is more useful for bringing in food to feed your children. An animal is something you can depend on in times of emergency. So it has to be prioritized.

Tim: You can sell trees too, right?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Hmm, you won’t find someone to buy them fast.

Tim: Even for planks?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Even planks. There might not be a market for them at the time [of your emergency]. It’s the livestock that will save you.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, an animal will save you, but in the long run a garden feeds you. If I had the opportunity, I would buy land and make a garden. But if I had a brother or a sister [in trouble] I would have to sell an animal.

Tim: I understand

Islande: Everyone has their own reasons…

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Everyone has their own reality.

Tim: So it seems that it’s because animals sell fast?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Sure, come take a look at my animals. I’ll sell you one fast! (Laughter)

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): The way I see it, if you are faced with a problem then you can’t sell your garden. People might not need it. But it’s much easier to take an animal to the market to sell. They are the priority.

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): You can carry the produce from the garden as well.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Both – land and animals – are important to me.

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): You could always sell your land…

Tim: Do you have another question?

Islande: No

Tim: Ok then, we would like to thank you for your time.

Audience: Ok, thank you!

Islande: If I could ask one last, last question before we all go, what do you plant most around here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Plantains, yams, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, beans.

Islande: OK!

Islande: What beans?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Black beans, kongo beans, sweet beans.

Tim: What is more important for you, your crops or your trees?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Crops.

Tim: OK, what’s more important, your crops or your livestock?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Livestock, crops, they’re both important.

# Male non participant: If you have crops, you have to have livestock, too.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): You can’t live without crops, you can’t live without livestock. You need them both.

Tim: OK.

Islande: Why is that? Why is that?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Because, if you have a good garden with beautiful crops, if you have a goat and you need money, you sell it.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): You sell the goat to buy what you need for your farm land.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): You sell it to buy things to put in your garden.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): To buy inputs.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): To be able to hire day labor, etc.….

Tim: It’s the animals that cover those costs?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, yes.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): I sell an animal. That is what I’ve got, what I own.

Tim: OK.

##Trees and Mysticism

Tim: But, do any of the trees carry a spiritual importance?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Are you talking about spiritual forces?

Marco: The vodou spirits, “lwa

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Ok, I see…

Tim: You don’t have any?

Marco: Are there any special trees that have spirits in the area?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We understand what you’re asking, but it’s not something we believe in. We don’t serve those spirits. We don’t know about them.

Tim: Are you Evangelists?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We hear about it…

Islande: Ok, maybe you don’t personally believe in it, but have you heard people talk about some trees that shouldn’t be cut down by anyone?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Sure, there are some trees that people talk about it like that.

Islande: What type of trees are they?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Most of the time they are a Calabash trees.

Islande: Calabash. What else?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Tamarind, Rubber trees (Ficus elastica).

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): And Gombo Limbo trees (Bursera simaruba)

Islande: Are there any Mapou trees (Ceiba pentandra) in the area?

#20/#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): There are some Mapou trees.

Tim: Do the Gombo Limbo often have them (lwa) too?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

50 Minit

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  There are Mapou trees by the river. They are the trees you’re talking about it, the ones that host spirits.

Marco: Number 16, do people ever cut down these special trees?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  People do it sometimes

Marco: Would you ever cut down a mystical tree?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, I don’t do those things.

….

Tim: Wait, let me ask you a question. There are trees that have spirits in them, right?

Piblik: Yes.

Islande: Apple trees.

Tim: Hmm.

Islande: Cashew trees.

Tim: Cashew trees have spirits?

Islande: They have nuts, seeds (nwa).

Tim: No, spirits (lwa).

Marco: Ah, spirits. OK.

Islande: Ah, OK, spirits (lwa,miste).

Tim: Do you have those?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes, there are trees like that. We can’t cut them down.

Tim: You can’t chop them down, is it an ancestral thing, or…?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes, it’s a family thing, a matter of blood, or race..

Tim: These ancestral trees, you have them on your own land?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): If you have it on your land, you can’t cut it down.

Islande: How do you know when a tree has a spirit in it?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): How you know is that ever since you were a child you’ve seen old people worshipping there, telling you the tree must never be cut down. They worship there and say such-and-such a spirit lives there, you can’t cut it down.

Tim: OK, 18, but what kind of tree is most likely to have a spirit in it?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Calabash.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Calabash, Mango, they have them, too.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Fige, Spanish Lime, Palms, too.

Tim: OK.

Marco: Ok, 18, under what conditions could you cut down a tree like that?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Ah! I can’t cut it down, ever!

Tim: Trees like that, are they near water, are they always by the water or can they be anywhere?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Anywhere, they can be anywhere.

Fruit Trees

##Seasons

Tim: What about passion fruit?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Sure.

Tim: Do you have a lot?

20 Minit

Audience: Yes, we collect them. But they’ve become expensive because they are rare now.

Tim: Because they are not in season?

Audience: Yes

Tim: But do you usually have a lot? What time of the year do they come into season?

Audience: Around the month of May

Tim: Until when?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): They start to fruit in May and yield in June. You can find them through the month of December.

Tim: How about Mangoes?

Audience: The main season arrives during the school vacation, in June, July. But Mangoes produce almost year around. They almost don’t have a season.

Tim: The season never ends?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): While you finish picking the Mangoes on one tree, the fruit of another tree are ripening, while another tree is putting on flowers.

Tim: Do you have Mangoes now?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): The biggest Mango harvest is in May.

Tim: And Custard Apples?

#26/#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): You can see that Custard Apples are coming into season now.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Starting in January, they start to fruit.

Islande: Until when? When is the last of the harvest?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Maybe May or June.

Marco: What about star apple?

Islande: Do you have start apples in this area?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No, we don’t have any.

Islande: And Papaya?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Yes, we are thick with Papaya here.

Islande: When do they start to produce?

#3/#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Papayas are year-round.

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): It depends when you plant them.

Tim: So each tree has its own season?

Islande: Are there some months that produce more Papayas than others?

Marco: Is there a time of year when everyone has Papayas?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Right now we have a lot.

Marco: What months do you have the most.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): In December, January

Islande: What about other areas?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): December, January, even February. But they fruit year round.

Tim: Tell me about Limes. When is their season?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): It depends on the weather.

Tim: What about sweet Oranges?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Sweet Oranges usually start to yield in May, June. Sometimes there is a second season in November through January.

Islande: And Soursop?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Starting in March. Limes can start to produce in March too.

Islande: Limes start in March?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes.

Tim: When do they finish?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): They start to run out in October.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): In November you can barely find them [in the market] and they become expensive.

Islande: So you might say they start to run out in September…

Tim: Do you have Avocadoes here?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): This year we don’t have any at all

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are some

Tim: Did the hurricane destroy them?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, not all of them. There are still some trees.

Islande: When do they produce most?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): July

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): In July and August.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Also in September, October and November

Islande: Wait, tell me more about Soursop…

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Soursop have the same season as Custard Apple.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Soursop is in season now.

Tim: When does it finish?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): You’ll find some all year, not in abundance but a few.

Islande: And almonds?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Almonds fruit when the leaves drop and flowers bloom.

Islande: In what season do you have a lot of Pineapple?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): When June and July come around.

Unidentified Male Participant: In July.

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): In May, too!

Tim: When, from May to when?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): May, June, July.

Tim: May, June, July, OK. And Mango?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): May.

Tim: Until when?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  It starts….

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): January, it starts in January and goes to the month of May.

Tim: Ok.

Marco: Ok, and for Pineapple, in what month do you have the most?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It starts in May and ends in July.

Marco: Does it start in May?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes.

Marco: It ends in July.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes, because it is one harvest after another.

Tim: And Star Apple?

Islande: Hmmm.

Marco: Yes

Tim: Star Apple. When do you find them?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): March.

Tim: March, until when?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Until May.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  In June too.

Tim: And Custard Apple (Cachiman)?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Custard Apple is usually ready around this month, in January it’s there.

Tim: Until when?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  July.

Tim: Lime?

Island: When do the first Custard Apples ripen?

Voice: Lime doesn’t end, it’s harvest after harvest..

Marco: Ok, #41, Custard Apple (Cachiman), in what month did you say?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): It starts in January, February and March, we still have it in April.

Tim: And Limes, when do you have the most Limes?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): The month of June.

Tim: When does it end?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): It ends in April.

Tim: It ends in April, it starts in April, it ends in June, so there are only two or three months.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: And Sweet Orange?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Sweet Orange starts at the same time..

Tim: Lime, Grapefruit is the same time?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes
# Unidentified Male Participant: Three months, three months.

Tim: Oranges, it’s the same time?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

Marco: They all have the same dates?

Tim: Three months, they bear fruit for three months.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, it’s the same time, the same three months.

Tim: What fruit have we missed… and Coconut bear fruit twice?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Coconut is one year.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  It’s one harvest after another, but it’s hard for them to reach the point where they are ready. They grow slowly, and they can easily get destroyed in a storm.

Marco: How many months, how many months?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): They can take a year.

Islande: No, harvest-after-harvest means one week so-and-so has them, and another week somebody else does.

Tim: OK, so it doesn’t have a season, each tree has its own season.

Marco: How many months?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): One harvest after another.

Tim: OK, so it doesn’t have a season, each tree has its own season.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes.

Tim: So, what are we missing here? Is there another fruit?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Papaya.

Tim: OK, Papaya.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Papaya, I heard Papaya.

Islande: What did you say, No. 20?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): I said…

Islande: When do you have the most Papayas?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Right now, the Papayas are ready.

Islande: When will they be finished, do you know?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): It’s one harvest after another.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Harvest after harvest.

Tim: Avocados?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Every year they’re ready in June, and even May.

Tim: And how many months until it ends?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): We have Avocados that don’t end until December.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): We have another good crop.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Cashew apples, native apples, the ones they make nuts with.

Tim: OK.

Tim: When do you harvest them?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They’re ready in June, July.

Tim: June, July and when are they done, July?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Marco: Ok, it starts in June and ends the same.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

##Selling and Market

Tim: What fetches the highest price in the market?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Breadfruit sells for a lot.

Tim: Is there only one variety of Breadfruit? Or do you cultivate several varieties?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): There are several…

Audience: We have two varieties.

Tim: What about Mangoes?

Audience: There are several varieties.

Tim: What type of Mango sells best?

Audience: Mango yil, Mango kòn, Mango kawòt, Mango kakòn

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are other Mangoes that sell even better, but we don’t have them here. They are called madan blan and fransik.

Islande: What about here? Which Mangoes do you sell?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Mango kakònlabenyillabich.

Tim: Why don’t you plant fransik and madan blan if they sell better?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We can’t get them…

Tim: You can’t find them?

Audience: Sometimes we plant them, but they don’t take.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The soil is too dry.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We’ve tried planting them, but we didn’t succeed.

Tim: Ok.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They turn into other varieties. When I planted a Mango madan blan, it produced another variety of Mango.

Islande: I have another question. There is a type of Mango that is almost exclusively found in the Grand Anse. Do you have that Mango here? Do you plant it?

Audience: We have it, but not many trees.

#1/#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  The hurricane wreaked the trees. There were only a few left..

Marco: Ok, but returning to the Mangoes you still have, are there any big-time merchants that buy them from you?

Audience: Yes!

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Sure, the market vendors.

Islande: How do you sell Mangoes to the merchants?

Audience: We sell them by the basket, by the bucket.

Marco: Do they come to purchase them by car?

Audience: No

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, they don’t come to us.

Marco: The merchants come by foot?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Generally, small-time merchants travel here by foot from town.

Islande/Tim: Do you carry the Mangoes? Who carries them to the market?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, you carry them to the roadside. Vendors meet you there. They buy them to resell in the market.

Tim: Does no one come to directly to buy Mangoes? They might buy the harvest from a whole Mango tree?

Audience: No no

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, that’s not done here.

Tim: Do merchants purchase the harvest of any other types of fruit?

Audience: No

Tim: Not even with Coconuts?

Audience: No, you pick Coconuts as you need them to sell.

Tim: When you sell Coconuts, do you dry them first?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Until they have no Coconut water?

Audience: No, they still have water.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): You can sell them as soon as they are ripe.

Islande: But do you ever dry them first, so that the Coconut flesh can be grated?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Once you can hear the water shake in the shell, that means the flesh is hard. That means you can grate it and it is good to sell.

Islande: Do you also sell fresh drinking Coconuts?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No. I know they sell them in town, but we don’t sell them around here

Tim: What about passion fruit?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Sure.

Tim: Do you have a lot?

20 Minit

Audience: Yes, we collect them. But they’ve become expensive because they are rare now.

Tim: Because they are not in season?

Audience: Yes

….

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, we had a lot of Grapefruit growing up.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They used to yield fruit in the month of March. But it was always difficult to find customers to buy them all.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I remember harvesting them in December and January.

Tim: What would you do with the surplus?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We sold some, made juice.

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Some went to waste.

Tim: Did you give the rest to animals?

Audience: No, we sold them.

Tim: Animals don’t eat Grapefruit?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, only people eat them. We made lots of juice, but we couldn’t drink it all. Now we don’t have any left.

Tim: You had a lot?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  A lot.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): When we had too much, we used to peel the fruit to make jam.

Tim: Papaya.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It gives you a fruit.

Tim: It produces a fruit. A vegetable.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes

Marco: But do you take them to sell in the market?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Marco: They don’t come to you to buy it?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, they do not come buy it, but we go to sell it in the market.

Islande: What market to you sell it in?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Beaumont, Jeremie, Roseau.

Tim: People come to buy?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No,

Tim: You transport it there.?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): We take it there.

Tim: What else do you take to market?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Mango…

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Avocado…

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Breadfuit

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Cachiman (Custard Apple),

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Soursop

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Sugarcane,

Tim: Mango?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Cane.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Sugarcane.

Tim: Sugarcane! And what Mango is the most important Mango around here?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Mango Labiche.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Kakonn Mango.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Francique.

Marco: #18, What Mango do you have the most of around here?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Well around here we have all kinds of Mangoes.

Marco But what do you think is most common?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): The Kakòn Mouben is the one we have the most of.

Marco: Kakonn.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Kanel Mangoes.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Labiche.

Tim: Which one gets the best price?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Mango Kakonn.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Kanel.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): There’s a Mango like that but we hardly have any around here.

Marco: Kakòn has horns?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes.

Islande You don’t have Yil Mangoes around here?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): There’s another Mango Fil (string).

Islande: This is the number 5 who is talking.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): It usually has worms, but when it doesn’t it sells for a higher price than the others.

Islande: Because it is refreshing.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): It’s a refreshing Mango.

Tim: OK, and do you have any Coconuts here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): We lost most of them to the storm. We have some little ones but the weather killed most of them.

Tim: Do people come to buy Coconuts from you?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): When we had them. When we had them. we took them to sell, but now we don’t have them.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Now we are starting all over.

Tim: Among all of these trees, what sells for the highest price? Even if it’s for the wood. What is the most valuable one to you?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Limes

Tim: Lime?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Lime, Orange,

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Coconut.

Tim: What? Coconuts are valuable, too?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): yes.

Tim: Let’s talk a little more about fruit. What fruit sells best here?

Marco: What fruit? Like when we talk about fruit, Mango…

Islande: Mangoes, Avocados, Oranges, Limes, Grapefruit.

The Public/Unidentified participant repeats all of these fruits.

Tim: Is there one that sells best?

Islande: That sells the most. That is the most popular.

Marco: Ok, #19 what sells best in this area?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): The best seller is Coconut.

Marco: Coconut.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Marco: Out of all the fruits, Coconuts sell the best?

Tim: You all agree?

Marco: You all agree?

Island: You understand? The most money, the most fruit.

Islande: OK! The ones that sell the fastest?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): You’ll sell more Mangoes, when you put it into … you’ll sell out.

Islande: OK, and what do you sell the most of?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): What sells best is Custard Apple (Cachiman)…

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): And Soursop.

Islande: Number 15 says Soursop, OK!

Tim: What’s most important, as in, when you’re hungry, when there’s a drought, when you have problems, when you can’t find work, things like that.

Islande: What helps you?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Well, what’s most important when we’re hungry, it’s yellow yams.

Tim: 16

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Because when we buy a basket for two hundred dola, to plant, in times of hunger you can get something to eat from it every three months.

Marco: OK, number 16, but do you all agree?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, we agree.

Tim: Yellow yams.

Islande: And you don’t have manioc here?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: The storm destroyed them all, we’re having to start all over with them.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): And that was your best crop.

Tim: The yams?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Manioc.

Tim: Manioc?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): We had all those things, but they were wiped out.

Islande: OK, Let us return to fruit. Do you have Grenandin around here?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  We used to have them, but we don’t any more.

Islande: And Passion Fruit?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, we have them.

Tim: Pineapple…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, we have those.

Islande: Well, you didn’t talk about those things at all.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Well you know, there are a lot of those things.

Tim: There are a lot of them.

20 minutes

Marco OK, so when you say, yes, you have them, do you mean you have a large quantity of them, or that people might have a couple trees in their gardens?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We don’t have them in quantity.

Unidentified Female Participant: One person might have them, but not everybody.

Unidentified Male Participant: They might have two or three trees.

Islande: Pineapple does not sell much.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Right.

Islande: It does not sell fast.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Right.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): When there’s not much of it, it sells fast. When there’s a lot it doesn’t sell well.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Cashew apples, native apples, the ones they make nuts with. …

Tim: … they important to you?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes, it is important to us because it sells at a high price.

Islande: What kind of trees do you buy?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  All kinds of trees.

Islande: No. 5, what kind of trees do you buy?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): All kinds of trees.

Islande: Such as? Give me some examples.

Tim: Do you buy trees?

#5 Yes, I buy trees, but what I buy the most is ash and Log Wood, because I’ve already used to them.

Islande: So what do you use Log Wood for?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Houses, posts…

Islande: And ash?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): I make house beams.

Tim: But for your own home, or to sell?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): For my own home.

Tim: You don’t saw boards to sell?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): I’ve never done that, but I can’t say whether I might do it some day.

Tim: Is there anyone here who has bought trees to saw boards and sell them?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Who does that?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I’ve done it.

Tim: 17, do you?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I buy them, saw them, make furniture from them, I make coffins, and I sell them.

Tim: You are a carpenter. OK, so is there anyone who is not a woodworker who does this? Are there any women who do?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, I do not.

Tim: None of the women do that all, no women buy trees as an investment?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  No, you won’t find any.

Tim: Does anybody buy Mangoes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, I do.

Tim: You buy the whole tree?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: We buy the harvest.

Tim: The harvest!

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): You buy the harvest.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, the harvest.

Tim: Then you go harvest all the Mangoes?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes, it’s going to be…

Islande: Number 15, you used to buy Mangoes?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

Tim: #15

Islande: How much do you pay for the Mango tree, how much can you buy a tree of Mangoes for?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): With all the Mangoes in it?

Islande: Yes.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): What that means is that you buy it according to the quantity of Mangoes in it, you might pay the person a thousand goud. That means the tree won’t be mine, but I can buy the harvest for 1000 goud.

Tim: Ok 15, you’ve bought it, then what do you do?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I go and sell it.

Tim: But how, you are the one who goes and picks the fruit?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No, I have someone pick for me, and I go and sell it.

Marco: You pay that person?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, if it’s somebody in my family. I don’t pay them, but otherwise I pay them for the service, and they harvest for me.

Islande: How much do you usually pay?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I pay them 30 dola (30 Haitian dola or 150 goud) or 50 dola (250 goud).

Tim: Now, you carry off the Mangoes?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

30 minutes

Tim: You put them on a truck, or a bus?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, a truck or a motorcycle.

Islande: Where do you sell them?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Roseau, Jeremie, Beaumont.

Tim: OK.

Islande: Do you pay after you’ve finished selling, or do you pay before you go to sell?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): It depends on the terms I’ve agreed to. I might say I’ll pay after I’ve finished selling, but if the other person doesn’t agree to that I’ll pay before selling.

Tim: Do you do that with other fruit too, such as Custard Apple or Star Apple?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No.

Tim: No, Avocado?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, there are people who do that although I never have.

Tim: Yes, but most of the time you do it with Mango?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, it’s easier with Mango.

Tim: And the Cashew apple, you don’t do it with apples?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  There are not enough to do it.

Tim: hmm.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  There aren’t enough to buy and then resell.

Tim: There is not enough to do it?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes.

Tim: What do you do with them?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  The apple?

Tim: Yes.

#7: The apple, like the apple, they sell the apple, I mean they eat the apple and they sell the seeds to make things to eat out of them.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): You make tablets with them.

Tim: You make tablets?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes.

Tim: But you don’t go to Jeremie with them, there aren’t enough?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, that means the person does not have enough to go to the market with them, they don’t have enough to go sell it.

Islande: But there aren’t other vendors who come buy from them at the crossroads?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Islande: Well, when they come to buy it, it’s not to go resell somewhere?

Tim: The seeds, but they don’t buy the tree’s harvest, they don’t buy the harvest.

Island: When the nuts are ready how much can you sell a can for?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): It depends on when we start.

Marco: Number 5.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): When there’s a lot at the beginning, one can sells for 20 dola (100 goud). But when it starts to get scarce it can sell for 30 or 40 dola per can.

Islande: OK Number 5, is there nobody here who has sold tablet made with the Cashew nuts, or who makes grilled Cashew nuts to sell?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Well we don’t sell just the nut, we sell it whole, with the flesh.

Islande: Number 41, you sell it with the skin and everything?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Yes.

Islande: How many cans (mamit) do you sell in a year?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): I haven’t sold it in a long time, because the trees just don’t produce much, there’s no harvest and sometimes we eat everything we grow, so there’s none left to sell.

Islande: Ok. So nobody here sells the nuts, you don’t sell the seeds? You sell the whole fruit?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, with the flesh.

Islande: Hmm. Nobody has done it?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): With the flesh, measured by the can?

Islande: Hmmm.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Sure, I do. I sell 4, 5, 6, 7 cans.

Islande: And those 4, 5, 6, 7 cans, they go to people in the neighborhood, or do people from other areas nearby come for them?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): It’s not people from outside. It’s like a game, I trade, I’ll take somebody else’s, or he’ll take mine. If there’s enough I’ll take them and go sell them by the can.

****

##Mangos

Marco: What’s most important to you?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Mango, Breadfruit and Coconut.

Islande: And you, what do you find most useful?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): The same. Breadfruit, Mango, Coconut. Breadfruit is very important for me.

Islande: What makes them so important?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Because they provide nourishment. I am able to feed my children with them.

Tim: What fetches the highest price in the market?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Breadfruit sells for a lot.

Tim: Is there only one variety of Breadfruit? Or do you cultivate several varieties?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): There are several…

Audience: We have two varieties.

Tim: What about Mangoes?

Audience: There are several varieties.

Tim: What type of Mango sells best?

Audience: Mango yil, Mango kòn, Mango kawòt, Mango kakòn

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are other Mangoes that sell even better, but we don’t have them here. They are called madan blan and fransik.

Islande: What about here? Which Mangoes do you sell?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Mango kakònlabenyillabich.

Tim: Why don’t you plant fransik and madan blan if they sell better?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We can’t get them…

Tim: You can’t find them?

Audience: Sometimes we plant them, but they don’t take.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The soil is too dry.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We’ve tried planting them, but we didn’t succeed.

Tim: Ok.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They turn into other varieties. When I planted a Mango madan blan, it produced another variety of Mango.

Islande: I have another question. There is a type of Mango that is almost exclusively found in the Grand Anse. Do you have that Mango here? Do you plant it?

Audience: We have it, but not many trees.

#1/#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  The hurricane wreaked the trees. There were only a few left..

Marco: Ok, but returning to the Mangoes you still have, are there any big-time merchants that buy them from you?

Audience: Yes!

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Sure, the market vendors.

Islande: How do you sell Mangoes to the merchants?

Audience: We sell them by the basket, by the bucket.

Marco: Do they come to purchase them by car?

Audience: No

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, they don’t come to us.

Marco: The merchants come by foot?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Generally, small-time merchants travel here by foot from town.

Islande/Tim: Do you carry the Mangoes? Who carries them to the market?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, you carry them to the roadside. Vendors meet you there. They buy them to resell in the market.

Tim: Does no one come to directly to buy Mangoes? They might buy the harvest from a whole Mango tree?

Audience: No no

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, that’s not done here.

….

Tim: OK, we were talking about trees. What is your favorite tree?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Well, we like all trees.

Marco: Is there one you like more?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): We love Cashews. We love Breadfruit.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): All the trees, since we see they are important, we take care of them.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): We love Ash, too. We can cut them down and saw them.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): They are all useful.

Tim: They’re all useful?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, they’re all useful

Tim: Well, in the end… Why are they useful. What do you get from them? You get fruit? You get Mangoes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, they bear fruit.

….

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Mango, Breadfruit and Coconut.

Islande: And you, what do you find most useful?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): The same. Breadfruit, Mango, Coconut. Breadfruit is very important for me.

Islande: What makes them so important?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Because they provide nourishment. I am able to feed my children with them.

Tim: What fetches the highest price in the market?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Breadfruit sells for a lot.

Tim: Is there only one variety of Breadfruit? Or do you cultivate several varieties?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): There are several…

Audience: We have two varieties.

Tim: What about Mangoes?

Audience: There are several varieties.

Tim: What type of Mango sells best?

Audience: Mango yil, Mango kòn, Mango kawòt, Mango kakòn

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are other Mangoes that sell even better, but we don’t have them here. They are called madan blan and fransik.

Islande: What about here? Which Mangoes do you sell?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Mango kakònlabenyillabich.

Tim: Why don’t you plant fransik and madan blan if they sell better?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We can’t get them…

Tim: You can’t find them?

Audience: Sometimes we plant them, but they don’t take.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The soil is too dry.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We’ve tried planting them, but we didn’t succeed.

Tim: Ok.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They turn into other varieties. When I planted a Mango madan blan, it produced another variety of Mango.

Islande: I have another question. There is a type of Mango that is almost exclusively found in the Grand Anse. Do you have that Mango here? Do you plant it?

Audience: We have it, but not many trees.

#1/#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  The hurricane wreaked the trees. There were only a few left..

Marco: Ok, but returning to the Mangoes you still have, are there any big-time merchants that buy them from you?

Tim: How about Mangoes?

Audience: The main season arrives during the school vacation, in June, July. But Mangoes produce almost year around. They almost don’t have a season.

Tim: The season never ends?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): While you finish picking the Mangoes on one tree, the fruit of another tree are ripening, while another tree is putting on flowers.

Tim: Do you have Mangoes now?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): The biggest Mango harvest is in May.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Number 3. Well, the trees that are most important for us are Mango trees. After that, Breadfruit, Coconut and Soursop – but recently Soursop fruit are spoiled by “limon” (type of fungus).

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): One important things is that when the fruit are ready, worms get into the Mangoes. We need something to prevent that. You should give us something to fix the Mangoes. It’s something that hit the trees. You might have beautiful Mangoes, but you can’t find one to eat because they’ve all got worms. They’re no good.

Tim: OK, 18, but what kind of tree is most likely to have a spirit in it?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Calabash.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Calabash, Mango, they have them, too.

Marco: Do people ever make charcoal from fruit trees?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Not unless the tree dies.

Islande: Explain.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Fruit trees like Mangoes are very valuable. You wouldn’t cut one down to make charcoal.

Marco: But what if it’s an emergency, like paying school fees. Has that ever happened to you?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No. That’s not what Mango trees are for…

Tim: Let’s talk a little more about fruit. What fruit sells best here?

Marco: What fruit? Like when we talk about fruit, Mango…

Islande: Mangoes, Avocados, Oranges, Limes, Grapefruit.

The Public/Unidentified participant repeats all of these fruits.

Tim: Is there one that sells best?

Islande: That sells the most. That is the most popular.

Marco: Ok, #19 what sells best in this area?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): The best seller is Coconut.

Marco: Coconut.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Marco: Out of all the fruits, Coconuts sell the best?

Tim: You all agree?

Marco: You all agree?

Island: You understand? The most money, the most fruit.

Islande: OK! The ones that sell the fastest?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): You’ll sell more Mangoes, when you put it into … you’ll sell out.

Islande: OK, and what do you sell the most of?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): What sells best is Custard Apple (Cachiman)…

Tim: Does anybody buy Mangoes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, I do.

Tim: You buy the whole tree?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: We buy the harvest.

Tim: The harvest!

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): You buy the harvest.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, the harvest.

Tim: Then you go harvest all the Mangoes?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Yes, it’s going to be…

Islande: Number 15, you used to buy Mangoes?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

Tim: #15

Islande: How much do you pay for the Mango tree, how much can you buy a tree of Mangoes for?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): With all the Mangoes in it?

Islande: Yes.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): What that means is that you buy it according to the quantity of Mangoes in it, you might pay the person a thousand goud. That means the tree won’t be mine, but I can buy the harvest for 1000 goud.

Tim: Ok 15, you’ve bought it, then what do you do?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I go and sell it.

Tim: But how, you are the one who goes and picks the fruit?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No, I have someone pick for me, and I go and sell it.

Marco: You pay that person?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, if it’s somebody in my family. I don’t pay them, but otherwise I pay them for the service, and they harvest for me.

Islande: How much do you usually pay?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I pay them 30 dola (30 Haitian dola or 150 goud) or 50 dola (250 goud).

Tim: Now, you carry off the Mangoes?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

30 minutes

Tim: You put them on a truck, or a bus?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, a truck or a motorcycle.

Islande: Where do you sell them?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Roseau, Jeremie, Beaumont.

Tim: OK.

Islande: Do you pay after you’ve finished selling, or do you pay before you go to sell?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): It depends on the terms I’ve agreed to. I might say I’ll pay after I’ve finished selling, but if the other person doesn’t agree to that I’ll pay before selling.

Tim: Do you do that with other fruit too, such as Custard Apple or Star Apple?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No.

Tim: No, Avocado?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, there are people who do that although I never have.

Tim: Yes, but most of the time you do it with Mango?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, it’s easier with Mango.

Tim: And the Cashew apple, you don’t do it with apples?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  There are not enough to do it.

Tim: And “bwa fouye”?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, they use it for “bwa fouye.” And Mango wood as well.

Audience: [Agreement] Yes, they use Mango wood.

Audience: The trees that are most useful are Breadfruit, Mangoes, fruit trees – ones the that provide food.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Number 3. Well, the trees that are most important for us are Mango trees. After that, Breadfruit, Coconut and Soursop – but recently Soursop fruit are spoiled by “limon” (type of fungus).

….

Tim: And what about other fruit? Like Mangoes?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): During hurricanes Mangoes fell to the ground… We still have Coconuts. Breadfruit Nuts (Bocconia frutescens) used to be an important tree crop for us, but now we hardly have any left.

*****

Tim: Well! We’ll start now. I already explained what we are doing. Now we will just ask some questions. We’ll start with trees. So, what trees do you have around here? You can answer, 18.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): What trees do we have here? We have Mangoes, we have Avocados, we have Ash, we have Mahogany. You understand?

Tim. Yes, and what else?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): What advice would I give them?

Tim: Yes, would you ask for help with fruits, for help with charcoal?

Marco: But only with trees.

50 minutes

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): For trees only. Mangoes. We could use that, too, because we’ve lost a lot of Mango trees. We used to have lots of Mangoes, but not so much any more. We need more Mangoes.

Tim: You mean you would like a nursery with Mango trees?

#Man: Yes, for us to plant.

Tim: Horn Mangoes?

#Man: Blan, francique, for us to plant.

Tim: Franciques, are there people who come here to buy those to export?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, there aren’t.

Tim: People sell them in the streets. And you, 16, what kind of project would you like to see?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Well, I’d go into Mangoes more, too. Because, if I could find Francique Mangoes I’d plant them. Madanm Blan, I’d plant them. I have Labich and Kanel Mangoes, but I don’t have the other kinds.

Tim: OK, and 15, what kind of project would you want, to help with trees?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I’d ask for Coconut trees, because in the past we grew lots of Coconuts, but now we hardly have any. I’d do an intervention with them. If they were looking for a project, I’d ask them to do that for us, to give us Coconuts, and Mangoes, too. They’re very important.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Well, what I think we need is for someone to come graft the few Mango trees we have left, so they can reproduce. Understand? So they could produce nice Mangoes, and people would be able to have them.

Tim: Graft the ones already here?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, for people to sell, and eat, too.

….

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): So, I already talked about Mangoes. I said Mangoes are something we used to have around here in great quantities, but they’ve been destroyed in storms. So we need to do something to bring them back.

Tim: What kind of intervention would you prefer, one with charcoal, with fruit, or with trees to cut into boards?

Male non participant: Trees to make boards?

Marco: Is that what you would choose?

Tim: All… you would choose lumber?

Male non participant: Part boards, part food.

Marcos: Out of those three, which would you choose? You have to choose just one. Which one?

Male non participant: Choose one!

Marco: Chose one.

Male non participant: Fruit. Mango.

Tim: Mango. Which Mango?

Male non participant: Big Mango.

Tim: What kind of Mango?

Male non participant: Mango Madan Blan.

Tim: Madan blan. OK. You think we’re good? OK, does anyone have anything they’d like to add? Is there anything important we should know? I’m going to take what we’ve discussed to the bosses.

Marco: Anything you think is important for us to know.

Male non participant: We have Madan fransique.

Tim: Fransique.

….

Tim: What wood is best?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Mango.

Tim: Mango, 15 says Mango. What else?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Momben.

Tim: What else?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Mango and Momben.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): There’s another thing, like Sapodilla.

Tim: Why is that good?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): It’s produces a fruit. It has seeds like a Mango tree.

##Ownership of Trees

Tim: Ok. Let me ask you a question, if you have a Mango tree on your land, in your yard and it’s yours…can you sell it?

Audience: Yes

Tim: Could you sell just the tree? So it becomes someone else’s tree?

Audience: No, that’s not done.

Tim : Ok, but if you have a garden that was passed down through your inheritance…for example your father gave it to you. Can your brother come take part in it?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes, if it was inherited.

Tim: What if it was purchased from your father. Then can you and your siblings still work the land?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No

Tim : Ok, but can you sell a tree on it, like a Oak tree (Catalpa longissima)?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Sure

Islande: It seems the strategy is to divide your land into multiple plots and only plant manioc on some plots and let trees grow on others, so that you can rotate between the plots. And if you have a lot of land than you can let the trees mature before clearing them to plant crops.

Tim: OK, I understand. What is the best way to divide your land? Do you split it into a certain number of plots or do you just use what you have?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It depends on what you have. Some landowners have 3, 4, 5 different plots of land. That means they can wait a long time – maybe even 10 years – before returning to the same plot.

Tim: How much land do most people have? 1 kawo, 2 kawo of land?

40 Minit

Number 1, what are the average land holdings of people in the community?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): It’s different for everyone.

Islande: How about for you?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I personally have a half-kawo of land.

Tim: You have a half-kawo. Do you have children?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: How many?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I have 5 children.

Tim: Really? You look too young for that many…

Islande: I am 38.

Tim: Laughs…And you, Number 5, how many kawo do you have?

#5: 2 kawo

Tim: And number 10?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): 2 kawo

Tim: Is it yours, or?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): It’s my husband’s.

Tim: It belongs to you and your husband?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Did you both inherit land?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): He purchased his land

Tim: And when you put your holdings together, you have 2 kawo? How much is your share?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No, that doesn’t include inherited land…

Tim: Your holdings don’t include inherited land? Does that mean what you have with your husband is all purchased?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Do you cultivate a garden on it?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes, my husband works the land.

Tim: Ok, ok. What about you? Number…?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Number 26.

Tim: 26. How much land do you have?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): My wife and I have a half-kawo or so. But I might inherit more in the future.

Tim: Number 10?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): I purchased a half-kawo with my husband.

Tim: With your husband…Do you have your own inheritance?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): I have inherited land. My husband has a large inheritance.

Tim: Do you work your inherited land?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: You, yourself?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No, it’s not me who works the land. It’s my husband.

Tim: Ok, when your husband cultivates the land he has inherited, does the harvest belong to both of you?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes!

Tim: Even if he is working on his own inherited land?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim : Is that how it works for everyone?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes. My husband also works on my inherited land.

Tim: Does that mean he is working for you? And the harvest is yours?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): It’s for us. It’s ours.

Tim: Do you take part in the labor of harvesting?

#5: What?

Tim: As a woman, do you help [in the field]?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Islande: So if your husband plants the crops, you harvest them?

#5: Yes, yes

Tim: Number 19, how much land do you have together? Are you married?

#19 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Jasmine, Female, 22 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, High School Diploma): No.

Tim: Of course, you’re still young. Do you live with your folks?

#19 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Jasmine, Female, 22 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, High School Diploma): Yes, I live at my parents’ house.

Islande: Do you have any land?

#19 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Jasmine, Female, 22 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, High School Diploma): No, not yet

Tim: How much land does your mother have?

#19 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Jasmine, Female, 22 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, High School Diploma): She has one kawo.

Tim: She has one kawo together with your father?

#5: His father died…

Tim: Ok. What about you, Number 17?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): I have a half-kawo of land.

Tim: With your husband?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No, on my own.

Islande: You don’t have a husband

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): He is in Port-au-Prince

Tim: Do you have inherited land as well?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No, not yet.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): He’s not in line to inherit yet.

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Ok, so the land is still in your parent’s hands?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes, they take care of it.

Tim: When your parents pass on, do you stand to inherit some of the land?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes, my brother and I will inherit it.

Tim: You’ll split it between you two?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Will you be able to do what you want with it?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: How will you divide up the land? Decide which part is yours? Will you negotiate that with your [parents]?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes, with my brother. He will probably sell his part to me since he is not here. I’ll buy it from him, or else I’ll farm Plantains on his land and send him some of the proceeds.

Tim: Ok. And you Number 3?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): That’s my youngest son there (laughs). I have a little over a half-kawo.

Tim: A half-kawo? So you have that with your wife?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

Tim: Do you have any inherited land beyond that?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): My father has a little as well, we all live together

Tim: How much land do you have?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): A half-kawo together with my husband.

Tim: Do you have a separate inheritance?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No

Tim: And you, Number 15?

45 Minit

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I don’t own any land.

Tim: You don’t have any yet? Are you still your parents’ charge?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Your still with your parents, but they haven’t given you land to farm?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): There’s enough land to go around if I want to start a garden.

Tim: Ok. Is there anyone else?

Islande: No, we’re finished. However, I would like to ask Number 15 a follow-up question. Earlier you said that you cut wood to make charcoal. Where does the wood come from?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): It comes from my family’s land. There is a half-kawo or so that has wood to harvest.

Tim: But look, if there is a Mango tree, you have a Mango tree, does it belong to several people?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No It has a single owner?

Tim: Yes but, now… OK, for example, even the Custard Apple (Cachiman)…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  yes.

Tim: It’s the same with all trees, each has just one owner.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, if it’s on the person’s property it’s his.

Islande: Well, let me pose the question another way. On an inherited piece of land, does the tree belong to one person?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: No.  It belongs to all of the heirs.

Tim: So, all of the trees on the family land…

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They belong to all of the heirs.

Tim: Well.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They can all have a share.

Tim: OK. So, imagine I have a Konn Mango tree, Konn is the one you said sells well?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: So the Mangos are ready to harvest. Does anyone in the household have the right to harvest it and sell it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, since it’s in the house.

Islande: No, so any of those who inherited it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

Tim: They can sell it?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They go in and sell it.

Islande: Number 17 has something to say.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Somebody comes into that field, one of the heirs, and plants a tree, that tree is his. He might decide not to harvest everything, and leave something because he’s not the one who planted the garden, somebody else did.

Tim: Well.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  You understand what I’m saying?

Tim: Yes, that’s a good story, and it’s the same for wood?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes.

Tim: You plant on your own inherited land and it’s yours?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes

Tim: OK. And everybody recognizes that [the land] belongs to the family.

Islande: Do you buy trees on somebody else’s land, and leave them to grow a little more?

Public/Unidentified participant Yes, we always do that

Tim: You buy them on other people’s land?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, when we need it, we go and get it.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): When we need it, we go cut it down.

Tim: How long can you leave it there?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  For five, six years. You buy it and then you go and get it.

Tim: OK.

Islande: How much do you pay for a tree?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  It depends on how big a tree it is. If you buy it when it’s small you can pay, say, two hundred dola for it.

Islande: What kind of trees do you buy?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  All kinds of trees.

Islande: No. 5, what kind of trees do you buy?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): All kinds of trees.

Islande: Such as? Give me some examples.

Tim: Do you buy trees?

#5 Yes, I buy trees, but what I buy the most is ash and Log Wood, because I’ve already used to them.

Islande: So what do you use Log Wood for?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Houses, posts…

Islande: And ash?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): I make house beams.

Tim: But for your own home, or to sell?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): For my own home.

Tim: You don’t saw boards to sell?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): I’ve never done that, but I can’t say whether I might do it some day.

Tim: Is there anyone here who has bought trees to saw boards and sell them?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Who does that?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I’ve done it.

Tim: 17, do you?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I buy them, saw them, make furniture from them, I make coffins, and I sell them.

Tim: You are a carpenter. OK, so is there anyone who is not a woodworker who does this? Are there any women who do?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, I do not.

Tim: None of the women do that all, no women buy trees as an investment?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  No, you won’t find any.

Wood Trees

##Lumber

Tim: You can sell a standing tree?

Audience: Yes

Islande/Tim: How about you? Do you sell trees often?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, Oak trees. Trees that you can saw…

Tim: Saw?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, people will buy a tree on your land and come cut it down and saw [planks].

#16: For example, if you have a Oak tree on your land, and it’s reached a certain size where it won’t grow any more, then you can sell it to someone to saw. There are several timber species: Oak, Cedar, Mahogony… there’s a tree they call mawo (maybe: Daphnopsis americana). That’s what they buy most. We plant it as well so that we can sell it when we need to.

Tim: You plant Cedar, Mahogony…

#16: Yes, we plant CedarMahogony, mawo, Laurel (Lauraceae family).

Tim: And Eucalyptus?

#16: That too. We plant all of them. They’re all useful.

Tim: Do you ever plant trees to make charcoal?

#16: No, there’s no need. Trees that make charcoal reproduce/regenerate on their own.

Islande: What trees do you use around here to make boards?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Mahagony, ash.

Tim: Yes, they said that, but which is more…

Islande: Which is best, for making boards?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Mahagony, cedar, oak

Tim: They already said that.

Islande: 17, cedar?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Oak, oak, oak.

Islande: Oak?

Tim: They said that, also, you said Kaliptis.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes

Tim: They already said that. So, let’s change the subject, because we talked about that? Let me ask a question about…

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  The laurel makes really good boards.

Islande: Hmm!

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  The laurel makes very good boards.

Tim: Laurel, too?

Islande: Laurel…

##Other Uses

Other_Uses

Tim: Are there other uses for wood? For example, in other areas people make traps out of wood for their fishing boats.

Islande: Yes, “nas” (traps/nets) to catch fish.

Audience: They build them out of Bamboo

Tim: What else do you use to build traps?

Audience: With Bamboo and Wozo

Tim: Ok, I’m thinking of something different, called “bwe.” I’m not sure if I’m saying it correctly? It’s something black…

Islande: Oh, I know. You’re thinking of pitch!

Tim: Do you use it when constructing your house?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, if you’re house has a leak you can seal holes in the roof sheeting with pitch.

Tim: Yes, that’s it.

Islande: Do you have Rubber trees (Ficus elastic) here?

Audience: No, we don’t have any.

Tim: Ok, so you make traps out of Bamboo. What do you use to make baskets?

Audience: With leaves from the latanye Palm.

Tim: Only with latanye?

Islande: Do you have latanye Palms (Royal Palms) in the area?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are some, but many were destroyed.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Don’t forget about vines!

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, we use vines as well. There is a vine called “lyann barye” to make baskets. It makes strong baskets, that you can use to harvest your crops.

Tim: “lyann barye?”

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): But it was damaged…

Islande: Do they also make knapsacks out of it?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, they make them out of the same vine.

Islande: What about chairs?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): They make the frame out of wood and the seat out of Palm thatch.

Islande: A Royal Palm leaf that is yellow?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Other people use latanye Palm instead

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, but people mostly use young Royal Palm leaves.

Tim: Will any wood do for the chair, or is there a special type?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  A special tree.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): People mostly use Bitter Wood (Simarouba spp.) or Wild Sapodilla (Sapotaceae family). They use them for the crossbars of the chair.

15 Minit

Tim: Now, do you people purchase planks?

Audience: Yes

Tim: Do they use wood to build fishing boats?

Audience: Yes

Tim: Are there specific types of trees used to build fishing boats?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, there is a tree called Monben (Spondias mombin L.). And another called West Indian Laurel (Calophyllum calaba L)

Tim: What purpose do they serve? Are they good for making planks?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They’re good for carving out so you can make a fishing boat. The best wood for planks is Bitter Wood.

#1/#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Mahogany is also used for planks.

Tim: And “bwa fouye”?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, they use it for “bwa fouye.” And Mango wood as well.

Audience: [Agreement] Yes, they use Mango wood.

Islande: Besides those two, are there any types of trees used?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Sure, many types of large trees are suitable, as long as they meet the right criteria.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They have to be very large.

Islande: What other criteria do you look for?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Mostly size, the tree needs to be the size of a man, in terms of length and width.

Tim: Is that why you use Monben trees? Because they are so large?

Audience: Yes

Islande: Are there no Monben trees here?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, there are none.

Audience: There are some areas that still have them, but not many.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There used to be more…

Audience: The trees that are most useful are Breadfruit, Mangoes, fruit trees – ones the that provide food.

….

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  You might not have a use for Lucena, but I think it’s still important. It enriches the soil in place. And it feeds cows and goats.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes, for livestock forage. We also use it to make charcoal.

Islande: What about for tools? Do you use a special type of wood for the handle of picks, machetes?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  We use wood from Orange trees for machetes.

Islande: What about for pick handles?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We mostly use Sapodilla.

Islande: Only Sapodilla? Do you use other types of wood?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Calabash (Crescentia cujete)

Islande: What do you with Calabash trees?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  There used to be a lot of Calabash trees. We used the Calabash when we needed a “kwi.”[2] A long time ago people used it to Oak meat. Then they would add other things to conserve the meat.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): People also used to make vessels out of the Calabash gourd. They would pierce a hole in the gourd and carve out the inside so that it could carry water. Gourds keep water much cooler than plastic containers.

Islande: What about now?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are still some people that use them, but mostly people use “kwi”

Tim: Do you eat liane panier (hoopvine)?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, we eat it. That’s great stuff.

Tim: A great thing?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, it’s great.

Tim: But, is it good for other things, like is it something you can make charcoal with?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, they make baskets with it. They cut it and make baskets with it.

Tim: They make baskets with it?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes, you eat the leaves, like a spinach, you can make juice with it, and the vine, it’s straight, you make baskets with it.

Tim: You make juice with the leaves?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Are there other leaves you eat like that?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: What other leaves?

Male non participant: Spinach.

Tim: No, leaves from a tree.

Male non participant: Leaves from a tree… there’s olive leaves.

Tim: Olive?

Male non participant: Olive.

Tim: Are there any others?

Male non participant: They’re good greens. Morenga.

Tim: Yes, Morenga.

Tim: OK, so, we’re done. We would like to thank you sincerely… unless there is anything else you think we need to know.

Islande: Are there any artisans in the area who use latanier trees? Does anybody make crafts with those things?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): What do you mean artisana?

Islande: You make hats, you make baskets…?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Islande: Hmmm!

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Shoulder bags.

Islande: Are there people who make those things around here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: What do you make them with?

{#20} Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  With latanier.

Tim: Latanye

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): It can be used for seats in a chair, to sit in.

Tim: Chairs, too.

Public/Unidentified participant Yes. OK.

Islande: OK, you haven’t said what kind of wood you use to make chairs.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  With ash.

Islande: Straw chairs, that is.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  With ash.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): And Palm fronds.

Marco: The seat is with Palms?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, the fronds.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Palm fronds for the straw seat. We weave it.

Marco: Weave.

Tim: You don’t make houses with Palm boards?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Yes, strips.

Tim: Yes, strips.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Yes, that house right there is made with Palm strips.

Tim: OK, I see. That’s Palm tree?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, Palm. OK.

Islande: What do you use to make attics, lofts?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  With boards, cut boards, Palm-tree boards.

Marco: OK! If you think you have anything else that’s really important about trees, you can say it.

Tim: About trees, anything that’s a big deal. You say there are diseases that are hitting your trees?

Marco: Other than illness that strikes your trees, is there anything else important about trees?

*****

Trees as Fuel

##Charcoal

Tim: Do you ever plant trees to make charcoal?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, there’s no need. Trees that make charcoal reproduce/regenerate on their own.

Islande: What type of trees do you use to make charcoal?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  We use pieces of large trees. Like the ones that fell in church yard. The hurricane uprooted the trees and scattered them on the ground. Now we use them to make charcoal. But during normal times, we mostly use Mesquite trees…

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): And other trees that don’t produce fruit.

30Minit

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  We also use Log Wood and Lucena (Leucaena leucocephala). Lucena is well suited to charcoal. It’s very hardy. If you let it grow, it will take over your field and shade out other crops – like Manioc. Manioc takes a lot of sunshine to produce tubers. If there’s too much shade, then it will only produce leaves.

Tim: Then is Lucena a tree that you don’t want to grow into a mature tree?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  It’s not that we don’t want it to grow, that’s just how you manage your land. You have to cut Lucena so you don’t have too much shade.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  You might not have a use for Lucena, but I think it’s still important. It enriches the soil in place. And it feeds cows and goats.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes, for livestock forage. We also use it to make charcoal.

Marco: Do people ever make charcoal from fruit trees?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Not unless the tree dies.

Islande: Explain.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Fruit trees like Mangoes are very valuable. You wouldn’t cut one down to make charcoal.

Marco: But what if it’s an emergency, like paying school fees. Has that ever happened to you?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No. That’s not what Mango trees are for…

Islande: Number 15? What if your children needed something urgently? Would you cut down a fruit tree to make charcoal?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No, I would only make charcoal if the tree was already dead.

Islande: What about you, number?

Public/Unidentified Participant: Number 41. Would I ever cut down a fruit tree? No I couldn’t cut something that brought me a return every year.

Islande: What type of trees do you use to make charcoal?

Public/Unidentified Participant: Let’s see, Lucena, Log Wood, Mesquite, and other trees that don’t bear fruit.

35 Minit

Tim: Is there a time that you make charcoal?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): There’s no specific time.

Tim: So, any time?

Audience: Any time.

Marco: But is there a time when most people make charcoal?

Public/Unidentified Participant: Most often it’s when we are clearing our fields to plant manioc, in January, February and March. We gather lots of wood to make charcoal at that time.

Marco: Ah ok. But if there’s a season when everyone is making charcoal, does that mean that there isn’t charcoal available at other times?

Public/Unidentified Participant: No, people make charcoal during other times of the year as well. They just make more when they are clearing the fields of fallen wood.

Tim: Ok, so that I understand, after you clear the land and make charcoal, what do you do with the land next?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We burn the debris and then we plant our garden on the land.

Tim: What do you plant?

Audience: Manioc, sweet potatoes, corn, peanuts, all sorts of things.

Marco: Do any of you maintain a plot to sell wood for charcoal?

Islande: Such as a wood lot?

Public/Unidentified Participant: No, people don’t buy wood. There is enough to forage.

Tim: What about a wood lot? Does anyone ever buy the trees to make charcoal?

Audience: No

Public/Unidentified Participant: When you work your land, there is also wood to be cleared.

Islande: What about you? Do you ever purchase wood to make charcoal?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No. I cut wood from my parents land to make charcoal.

Tim: Let me return to an earlier question. First you clear your land, then you plant a garden. By the time you harvest the garden, have new trees already started to come up?

Audience: Yes, they come back.

Tim: Do you maintain any [perennial crops] in your garden? For example, you cultivate beans, corn and melons to harvest the same season, but are their crops like manioc that last longer?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes.

Tim: Are they compatible with growing trees?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Only if you manage the trees. You must cut them back when you plant your garden, then by the time the crops are ready to harvest the trees have started to come back again.

Islande: Number 3, how long does manioc need to mature for harvest?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): 1 year

Islande: How often do you plant manioc in your garden?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Almost every year.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): But you can’t replant manioc in the same place every year. You plant it on other plots of land, before returning to plant on the original plot some years later.

Islande: Ok, let me understand better: you rotate your crops between plots and let the land rest. Do trees grow on the land while it is fallow?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

Islande: So in that way you always have manioc and trees growing?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

Tim: Does that mean that you don’t cut the trees down on the [fallow] plot for 5 or 6 six years?

Audience: Yes

Tim: Does it take that long for the trees to reclaim the land?

Audience: By then you will have a lot of trees.

Islande: But you probably need a lot of land in order to rotate your plots like that…

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes

Islande: It seems the strategy is to divide your land into multiple plots and only plant manioc on some plots and let trees grow on others, so that you can rotate between the plots. And if you have a lot of land than you can let the trees mature before clearing them to plant crops.

Tim: OK, I understand. What is the best way to divide your land? Do you split it into a certain number of plots or do you just use what you have?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It depends on what you have. Some landowners have 3, 4, 5 different plots of land. That means they can wait a long time – maybe even 10 years – before returning to the same plot.

….

Islande: Do you gather the wood on your own, or do other people help you?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No, I usually do it on my own.

Islande: Do you make charcoal in the same place you gather the wood? Or do you have a specific place where you produce charcoal?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I make it on the land…

Tim: On the same land?

Islande: There is a saying, I’m not sure if people say it here?: “chabon zepòl

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): “Chabon zepòl.” Yes, we’ve heard it before. (Translates literally to charcoal shoulder, likely the practice of gathering wood from wherever you can find it).

Islande: How do they do it here?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): People transport it on their backs. They collect wood piece by piece as they go along.

Audience: You gather enough wood until you have a pile.

Marco: Is there any state-owned land here?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No

Tim: Is this practice accepted? What do you think of people who gather wood like that?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): “Chabon zepòl”?

Tim: Yes

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): I don’t see it very often…

Marco: Do you agree with it?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): I’m not crazy about it.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, it’s makes for trouble.

Islande: Number 3?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Sure, it’s a problem. I want to save the trees on my land for my children. If someone came across my land and cut them, I would take issue with it.

Marco: What would it mean to you?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): It would be a problem if someone cut my trees down. I plan to pay for my children’s education with those trees. I’ll cut them down to make my own charcoal.

Islande: Ok, so what would you do if you caught someone cutting your trees down?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): I would tell them to never return!

Islande: Does that ever happen? That you catch people cutting wood that isn’t theirs?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, people still do it.

Islande: Number 16, what do you do in that case?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Well, I have some land that is far away and difficult to keep an eye on. When I visit it, sometimes I find people cutting the trees and making charcoal.

Marco: Do you ever catch them in the act?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Sure

Tim: What did you do to them?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  I [pretended] to try to buy the charcoal.

Tim: How did they respond?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They said the charcoal cost 300 HTG (60 dola) per sack. He still didn’t know that it was made from my trees.

Audience: (Laughter)

Marco: So what did you to the guy?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  I didn’t do anything.

Tim: What did you do to make him pay for the charcoal?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Oh, I gave up.

Tim: You didn’t call the police?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): There are some people who will cut a little of the wood on your land and pay you back another day.

Marco: Explain

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): You let them get away with it, because they don’t have a goud to their name.

Islande: So it is necessity that drives them to cut wood on your land?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, yes

Tim: Do you not make charcoal? Are there people that specialize in certain activities, like making charcoal? Do you ever give someone the job of making charcoal with the wood on your land?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No

Islande: You never ask other people to make charcoal for you?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Only if I am busy with other work, then I might ask someone else.

Tim: Who do ask? Is there someone that specializes in making charcoal? Is there a charcoal tradesman?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are a lot of people who know how to make charcoal.

Islande: A lot of people know how to make charcoal, does that mean you could ask anyone to do it?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): As long as they know how to do it.

Tim: Can anyone make charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Sure, anyone can do it.

Tim : Anyone?

Audience: Yes

Tim: Can anyone saw wood [planks]?

#16/#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No

Tim: That’s the work of a tradesman

Audience: Yes

Islande: So why can anyone make charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Because making charcoal is easy!

Islande: Can you make charcoal? Do you make charcoal?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No

Islande: Number 26, do you make charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, I don’t.

Tim: Why?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It’s not my domain to make charcoal.

Tim: Because it’s dirty?

Islande: Then whose role is it to make charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): But if someone gave me wood to make charcoal, I’d do it.

Islande: Is there a way to do it?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There is a way that they stack the wood. I’ve seen them do it. If they asked me to take over, I could do it.

Tim: Do you ever sell charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, I haven’t sold it before. I’m not a merchant.

Tim: You don’t take sacks of charcoal to the market to sell?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No

Islande: Is there anyone here that sells wood?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes, we sell wood.

Islande: Ok, how do you sell it?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): You find people who make charcoal and you sell them wood.

Islande: You sell them a tree or a pile of wood?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): You negotiate a price with them and you sell them what you have.

Tim: How much wood do you need to make a sack of charcoal?

Audience: We don’t know the measurement. We usually buy it in bulk.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): For example, they sell a small bag of charcoal for 125 HTG (25 dola).

Tim: Ok, but if you had to estimate, how much wood would go into a 125 HTG bag of charcoal?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): That’s not how it works…

Islande: Then how do you measure?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): We collect wood when we work the land. But we don’t…

Tim: You don’t buy wood? But this woman just said she sells wood to make charcoal. So some people must buy it…

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

Tim: So have you bought wood from her?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, I could buy from her.

Tim: Is it already cut?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, it’s already assembled on the ground.

Tim: Then you agree to price for the amount you want to buy?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes

Tim: Ok, but is there a typical way that is sold?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No, not really.

Tim: How do you measure the amount when negotiating a price?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): The vendors stack it into piles. The price depends on the height of the pile.

Tim: There’s no standard measurement? Like a cord of wood?

#26 : No, no

Islande: Everyone sets their own price?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes

Islande: Ok, but I still want to know how much a sack of charcoal sells for?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): A large sack sells for some 250 HTG or 300 HTG.

Tim: 50 dola, 60 dola?

Audience: Yes

Islande: Do people transport the charcoal by vehicle to sell elsewhere? Where do they sell the charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Sure, there are vehicles that carry it to Port-au-Prince to sell.

Islande: Are there vehicles that come here?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, they come here to purchase it.

Islande: How much do they buy?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): The merchants purchase many sacks and travel with it to Port-au-Prince to sell.

Islande: Are there any such merchants in this area?

Audience: Yes, there is.

Islande: There are [charcoal] merchants here?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No, not among us….

Islande: Maybe not yourselves, but others…do any of you sell charcoal? Even just by the sack?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): For sure. That’s what I was saying. I sell them at 250-300 HTG.

Islande: Ah, ok.

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The larger vendors sell them by the “lo

Islande: By the “lo” you sell the charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): There are 10 sacks in a lo.

Islande: How much does a lo sell for?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): 10 sacks sells for 400, 500, 600 dola (2000, 2500, 3000 HTG)

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No, it’s should be 700, 800 dola (3500, 4000 HTG)

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): That depends, there are times when it is more expensive.

Islande: When is charcoal more expensive?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Actually, it’s more like 700 dola (3500 HTG)

Tim: But you said, that you don’t travel to Port-au-Prince to sell charcoal?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): No

Tim: Does anyone here travel to Port-au-Prince?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We go to Port-au-Prince sometimes, but not to sell charcoal.

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We sell it here.

Islande: Do you sell charcoal by the lo here (10 sack increment)?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes?

Islande: How much do you sell a lo for?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I used to sell it for 550, 600 dola (2750, 3000 HTG)

Islande: And now?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Oh, I had to give up selling charcoal.

Piblik: But you know the price, how much does it sell for now?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Now a lo sells for 700 dola (3500 HTG)

Islande: What makes the price increase or decrease?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  The price goes up when school is in session. Lots of people need charcoal to prepare food for their children in the morning before they leave for school. When school is out, parents find other things to feed their children that don’t require charcoal to prepare. That causes the price of charcoal to decrease.

Islande: So the price goes down during school vacation?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Not at the moment. The price of charcoal is still high because of the hurricane destroyed a lot of trees. Now there is less wood to make charcoal.

Islande: Ok, but do people use charcoal year-round to bake bread?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Not really around here…

Islande: Do people from town ever purchase wood to run their laundry businesses?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No

Tim: Do any of you sometimes buy a stack of wood to make charcoal?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: What’s your number again, 19?

Marco: Number 16

Tim: 16, you do that?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes, we all do it.

Tim: Everyone around here makes charcoal?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes, everyone does it.

Tim: Which wood is best to buy to make charcoal?

Islande: To make charcoal?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Log Wood.

Tim: Log Wood.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): Din wood.

Tim: Din wood, what else?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Those are the woods I know that are good for charcoal.

Tim: Why are they good for charcoal?

{ #2 } Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Because they are harder.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It’s hardwood, it’s the best wood.

Tim: When it’s small?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): It’s harder, it’s more firm.

Tim: Ah, it’s hardest.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Yes.

Marco: Do you ever make charcoal with wood from fruit trees, fruit-bearing trees?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): If they are already dead, if they die and you cut them down, you know?

Marco: If it’s dead wood?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): If a tree dies and it’s no longer of any use, it won’t bear any more fruit for us, we have to cut it down, and we make charcoal out of the wood.

Marco: But you never just choose a tree like that, and cut it down to make charcoal?

Piblik: No.

Tim:  Or if there’s an emergency, you say, we are going to have to chop down that Mango tree?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

Tim: That isn’t done?

Islande: If there’s a problem or an illness, you might say, we’re going to have to cut down that Mango and use it to make charcoal?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, that wouldn’t be good for us.

Islande: It might not be good, but do you have to do it sometimes anyway?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): If I see, this is No. 5 speaking, if I see a Mango tree and it’s clearly not dying, it’s healthy, if I cut it down to make charcoal it’s as if I’m killing a human being.

Marco: But do you ever do it?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): No, I don’t.

Tim: OK, let’s get back to charcoal. Now, you can buy a stack of wood?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: And, you say, what kind again?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Log Wood, hardwood.

Tim: Log Wood, hardwood.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Me, I do that. I buy wood, I make charcoal, when there’s Sapodilla, Sour apple, when there’s one that’s no longer bearing fruit people sell it in the market. It has a tiny seed. Those little seeds, birds eat them, you know? I buy those kinds of wood and I make charcoal.

Tim: OK, so it’s not good for anything else any more?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): No.

Tim: 18

Islande: OK, so this charcoal, do you sell it, or use it around here, or what?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Sometimes we sell it in Port-au-Prince, and sometimes we just sell it in the streets.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Me, I always sell my charcoal in Port-au-Prince.

Tim: 15, OK, so you send it by truck?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, on a truck.

Tim: You ride with it?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

Tim: You go with it. Do both men and women do this?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Do you go sell it in a warehouse, do you sell it all at once, in bulk?

{#2} Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, we go sell it in a warehouse.

Islande: And when you do this, when you make charcoal, sometimes does someone come buy it from you here and go sell it? I mean a reseller, a middleman, who takes it to sell in Port-au-Prince?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Islande: Or do you always take take it to sell in Port-au-Prince yourself, after you make it?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No, traveling merchants sometimes come buy from us.

Tim: Resellers come buy here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  If we want, we can go sell it ourselves.

Tim: You make more profit that way?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: What’s the difference?

Islande: Wait, let’s consider this closely. When you sell to someone who’s going to turn around and sell it somewhere else, how much do you get for a sack of charcoal?

Tim: A sack sold here.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): 70 dola (350 goud), or maybe you’d sell it for 60 dola.

Islande: 60 dola to the retailer.

Islande: And if you go to Port-au-Prince, how much do you pay for the truck to transport one sack of charcoal?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): 25 dola. There are places where they transport it for 30 dola.

Islande: OK, and what do you pay for yourself, for your seat?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  You don’t pay.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): For yourself, you don’t pay.

Tim: And how much do you get per bag?

Islande: What do you sell a sack for when you get to Port-au-Prince?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Depending on whether you can sell it, if you have 10 sacks you might sell them for 1200, or maybe 1000 dola.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): That means you’re selling it wholesale, they call 10 sacks one lot, so you are selling one lot.

Islande: Ah! Lot, you sell one for 1000 dola (5000 goud)?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes, or 1200.

Tim: One lot, how much do you sell it for here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  There are 10 bags.

Tim: And, how much does one lot sell for here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  600, 700 dola. 3000 goud.

Tim: 600, 700, you double the money?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

Islande: It’s almost double, the lot sells at 1000 dola.

Tim: Almost double, 1000,

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, it’s almost double.

Islande: But what if you subtract the money you pay to transport it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, you take out the cost of transport.

Tim: No, that’s 25 dola, you say.

Islande: $25 per bag.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Per sack, for each bag.

Islande: Each bag is 25 dola.

Tim: That’s 250?

Islande: Yes.

Tim: Now you are paying 250 dola, after all.

Islande: Hmmm!

Tim: OK…

Marco: OK #15. Do women sometimes buy a field of wood?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: And she pays a man to cut it?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): She pays a man to cut it.

Tim: Do women sometimes cut down trees?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes, women do chop down trees.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: And when you make charcoal, you cover it with earth?

Islande: A small or large amount of charcoal?

Public/Unidentified participant/Unidentified participant: A small amount, however much charcoal they can make.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Whatever we can do.

Islande: How many bags of charcoal will you get out of it?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Say five bags, maybe eight.

Islande: And men, how many bags of charcoal might they be able to make?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): 50, 80 100, or more. Me, I make 80, 90, 100 or so at a time.

Islande: 18, All at once?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, in one charcoal oven.

Tim: But, when you buy the wood to make the charcoal, do you make the charcoal yourself, or do you pay somebody else to do the work

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, I pay somebody to cut the wood, you understand, and then I take the wood, on my own, I burn it myself, and then I put it into the bags and go to sell it in Port-au-Prince myself.

Islande: And when you’re putting it into the bags, do you sometimes have your family come to help?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes.

Islande: Who typically helps you put it into the bags?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Well, neighbors, or I might hire somebody to sort it.

Islande: Wives, women.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Usually I pay somebody to sort the charcoal.

Islande: Do you bring your wife, or somebody else, I don’t know.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Charcoal, it’s the wife’s charcoal.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, that’s always the way charcoal has been done, charcoal belongs to the wife.

Islande: The children, do the children go along to sort the charcoal, too?

40 minutes

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes.

Islande: Who is more likely to sort the charcoal, little girls or little boys?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Everybody sorts. Girls sort, boys sort.

Islande: But who does it more?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Boys. Little boys sort it the most.

Islande: OK, let’s move on. Around here, do you ever do what you call “shoulder charcoal”?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, well, that’s exactly what we do. That’s the only way we do it.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  That’s all we do (laughter).

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): « Shoulder charcoal, » that’s… the distance from the cut tree, you carry it on your shoulder, the charcoal you carry here, that’s the « shoulder charcoal. »

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Shoulder wood charcoal. The wood might be cut at Charles Crossroads, and I’ll carry it here.

Tim: When you chop down a tree, do you cut it all the way down to the roots?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Down to the ground. To the ground. You don’t uproot it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

Tim: And does it grow back?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, it grows back.

Tim: So now you don’t have to re-plant.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, it will grow back just as it was.

Tim: But, does anybody plant trees expressly for the purpose of making charcoal?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

Tim: You just leave them to grow back?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Does every plot of land around here have a private owner?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: There’s no state land?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

Tim: So that means that when you buy wood you buy it from a specific person. If you catch someone who’s making charcoal with wood that’s not his …

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  He’s got problems.

Tim: What do you do to him?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We send him to prison.

Tim: Does that ever happen?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  It happens..

Tim: But you would denounce that person?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Well, he’s a thief.

Islande: What do you do, hit him a few times with a stick?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We turn him over to the law.

Islande: You hand him over to the justice system?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Well, there might be young people who do it sometimes.

Unidentified male participant: You ignore it. You turn your back

Tim: But do they do this a lot?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Do they take a lot?

Tim: Yes

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): That depends on how much they can carry!

Islande: (Laughter). Depends on how much they can carry. But a person might spend all day carrying wood.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): He won’t do it all day, because he never knows when the actual owner of the wood wil show up.

Tim: He’ll just take a little of it?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): He takes a little bit, then comes back for a little more. The land isn’t his. He’s a thief.

Tim: Does anybody ever show up on their own land and find that all of their trees are gone? Does that ever happen?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): Yes. In a flood.

# Public/Unidentified female participant (Focus Group Renal):  When the river rises.

Tim: No, no. When somebody has taken it all.

Islande: No, let me explain, if he takes a little, next day he takes a little more. Eventually, you might find there’s nothing left.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  There will be something left. A thief can try to take as much as he can, but the owner will eventually catch him.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  (silence)

Marco: But, in what season do people make the most charcoal?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  All the time.

….

Islande: Do you ever sell wood to bakers for making bread?

Islande: Hmmm!

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): No, that’s not likely.

Islande: Do people ever come to get wood with a truck to take it to the city?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  In boxes.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Yes, they do it all the time.

Islande: What kind of wood do they buy?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): All kinds, you understand? To fill up the trucks and take it to Port-au-Prince, that kind of thing.

Tim: Do they sell it in Jeremie, too?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Charcoal in Jeremie?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Islande: But, where do they take most of it to sell?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Port-au-Prince.

Tim: They don’t sell any in Les Cayes?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

Tim: They just go right past Les Cayes without stopping and go to Port-au-Prince?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: Generally, if a bag of charcoal sells for 60 dola here, how much does it sell for in Jeremie?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  80 dola.

Tim: 80, and it sells for 60 dola here, you’re telling me?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: For every 80 dola, you get 20 out of it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: How much does it cost to transport it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Oh man, like 15 dola.

Tim: Wow! So you’re only getting five dola!?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal): : (laughter) Yes, you’re going to get five dola.

Tim: Wow!

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  There’s not a lot of profit in it.

Tim: So you’re not likely to do that?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, we don’t do it.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We don’t go to Jeremie. I go to Port-au-Prince.

Tim: But, so, who sells charcoal in Jeremie, and other places?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They get it from Grand Vincent.

Tim: Grand Vincent.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  And, also closer to the city.

Tim: You never send off charcoal by boat?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Long ago, when there were boats. Now there aren’t any boats that come.

Tim: Sailboats?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, sailboats.

Islande: And sailboats, in sailboats, you don’t do that any more?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): That was a long time ago. A long time ago.

Islande: Now you have trucks that come get it right here, right at your door.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They come to get it here, load it up, and take it away.

Islande: How many trips does a truck make in a week? OK! How many trucks come pick up charcoal here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Several trucks.

45 minutes

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): In a week, when there are goods to transport, we can have five or six trucks come.

Tim: Do you let people buy on credit?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): The truck, yes.

Public/Unidentified female participant (Focus Group Renal):  I can’t support the children. And the credit, they carry it for us and when we unload it we pay them. When we arrive at the depot we unload the goods and we get paid by the owner of the depot, then we pay.

Tim: That’s when you go?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, when I go.

Tim: And the people who stay here, you take it on credit, you transport it, and you bring the money when you return?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, I bring the money back with me.

Tim: Now, if number 15 has some charcoal, you have a sack and you give it to number 19 to carry and sell for you.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, I sell it…

Tim: With nothing, without making one goud, then you bring back the money?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Islande: Do you ever lose money on the charcoal?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: How does that happen?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, a thief gets you.

Tim: Thief? People steal from you?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): You sometimes sell the charcoal, and you get robbed. You come home without one goud.

Marco: They take your money, not the charcoal.

Tim: They take it?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, if they don’t kill you..

Tim: Has that ever happened to you?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): No, that hasn’t happened to me, yet.

Tim: Has that happened to you?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No.

Tim: Has that happened to you?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): No.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): If I sell that guy charcoal, he pays me, and he goes to sell it in Port-au-Prince. My money is safer than his. He’s risking his money, taking on risk.

Marco: Do big resellers ever come from Port-au-Prince to buy charcoal here?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: What did you say just now?

Islande: He doesn’t risk his money, he sells here for 60 dola, they pay him. The person who goes to sell in Port-au-Prince is the one who takes on risk. He’s at risk of having an accident, or getting robbed.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): That’s what I mean exactly.

Tim: OK. But now, #18, if he goes with other people’s charcoal, and he gets robbed, he doesn’t have to pay the other people.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  (Laughter) He’s in hot water!

Tim: You’re on the hook, you have to pay.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): If I’m the one who sold to him, I could say he wasn’t really robbed, even if he might have been, and I could insist he pay me.

Tim: Yes, I see.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): You get it?

Tim: OK. How much money will you make if you transport it for #15, how much money will you take from the sale of his charcoal? How much profit will you make on it?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): If I carry it for him I won’t take money for it.

Tim: He’s family?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes.

Tim: And if you carry it for someone who’s not a relative?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): No matter who it is, if I carry his charcoal I won’t take money for it.

Islande: You carry it for each other?

#8: Yes, one person carries for another, no need for money.

Islande: Ah, OK.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): What’s even clearer, if I have 20 bags of charcoal I might sell him 10, and then have him sell my 10 for me.

Islande: Ah, OK!

Marco: Hmm. There he gets his profit.

Islande: No, he gets something else out of it. He sells him 10 bags, and then says, « Please, sell the other 10 for me»

Marco: He gets profit from the 10 he sells him.

Islande: Hmmm.

Marco: Yes.

Islande: Yes, have to know the place to go there.

##Wood Fuel

Islande: And, I have one last question. What kind of wood do you use to cook. Do you use charcoal or wood to cook?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We use both. We burn wood, we burn charcoal.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): We use dry wood more because, you know, we live in the countryside.

Islande: What kind of wood do use to cook at home?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  To cook… all kinds of wood. Any dry wood.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Log Wood, hardwood (dinn), Spanish wood. We use all of those.

##Stealing Wood to Make Charcoal

Islande: There is a saying, I’m not sure if people say it here?: “chabon zepòl

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): “Chabon zepòl.” Yes, we’ve heard it before. (Translates literally to charcoal shoulder, likely the practice of gathering wood from wherever you can find it).

Islande: How do they do it here?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): People transport it on their backs. They collect wood piece by piece as they go along.

Audience: You gather enough wood until you have a pile.

Marco: Is there any state-owned land here?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No

Tim: Is this practice accepted? What do you think of people who gather wood like that?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): “Chabon zepòl”?

Tim: Yes

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): I don’t see it very often…

Marco: Do you agree with it?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): I’m not crazy about it.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, it’s makes for trouble.

Islande: Number 3?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Sure, it’s a problem. I want to save the trees on my land for my children. If someone came across my land and cut them, I would take issue with it.

Marco: What would it mean to you?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): It would be a problem if someone cut my trees down. I plan to pay for my children’s education with those trees. I’ll cut them down to make my own charcoal.

Islande: Ok, so what would you do if you caught someone cutting your trees down?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): I would tell them to never return!

Islande: Does that ever happen? That you catch people cutting wood that isn’t theirs?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, people still do it.

Islande: Number 16, what do you do in that case?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Well, I have some land that is far away and difficult to keep an eye on. When I visit it, sometimes I find people cutting the trees and making charcoal.

Marco: Do you ever catch them in the act?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Sure

Tim: What did you do to them?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  I [pretended] to try to buy the charcoal.

Tim: How did they respond?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They said the charcoal cost 300 HTG (60 dola) per sack. He still didn’t know that it was made from my trees.

Audience: (Laughter)

Marco: So what did you to the guy?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  I didn’t do anything.

Tim: What did you do to make him pay for the charcoal?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Oh, I gave up.

Tim: You didn’t call the police?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): There are some people who will cut a little of the wood on your land and pay you back another day.

Marco: Explain

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): You let them get away with it, because they don’t have a goud to their name.

Islande: So it is necessity that drives them to cut wood on your land?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, yes

Islande: Yes, Number 20, you were saying that you have had the same problem?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): People passing through your garden plot will take whatever they need.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  It’s a result of poverty.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): They’ll even take Plantains. A friend took them from my garden.

Islande: A friend took your Plantains?

Audience: (Laughter)

Caring for Trees

##Planting

Tim: Let me ask you a question, do you plant your own trees?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: When was the last time you planted a tree?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): The last time I planted a tree was in November, I planted two Coconut Palms.

Tim: What about you, number 10? When did you last plant a tree?

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): After the hurricane passed, I planted Coconut(s).

Tim: Let me ask you another question…

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): After that I planted crops in my garden.

Tim: Who is responsible for planting? Is it men or women?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Men

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Men

#10 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jonas, Male, 28 years-old, 3 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Women farm as well, but it’s mostly men.

Tim: And what about you, Number 26? When was the last time you planted a tree? Or have you ever planted a tree?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): I have planted trees. I can’t remember when the last time was.

Tim: Ok, who else?

Marco: Number 1?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): On Tuesday I planted to 2 Coconut Palms.

Tim: That’s good. What about you, Number 8? Did you plant a tree or not?

#8: No, I didn’t.

Tim: You didn’t plant a tree?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  I planted other plants in my garden, but no trees.

Islande: What type of crops did you plant?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I planted beans.

Tim: Did you only plant a garden?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I also planted a Mango tree.

Tim: And you?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Personally, I planted Coconut Palms since many were lost in the hurricane. I also planted Avocado trees. Then in November, I planted Bread Fruit trees. A type of Breadfruit called “Kayin.”

Tim: Is that a special type of Breadfruit?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: Where did you find the planting material?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I dug it up.

Tim: Where?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I dug it up and planted it during the rainy season. I planted several. Three of them took. Along with the Avocado and Coconuts I planted. There were some other trees we planted, such as that tree over there.

Islande: What type of tree is that?

# 1: We call it sanwont. I don’t know the other name for it..

Participants: That’s what we call it as well, sanwont (Leucena).

Tim: Sanwont?

Participants: Yes

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We plant it because it provides shade. When you plant one in front of your house, it casts a wide shade.

31: Almond trees do the same.

Tim: Does it produce anything else?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No it doesn’t yield any fruit.

#16/#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): It’s just for shade.

Participants: Animals eat it. It provides forage.

Tim: Only animals eat it?

Participants: Yes.

Tim: And you? Did you plant any trees?

#19 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Jasmine, Female, 22 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, High School Diploma): No

Tim: And what about you, 17?

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): No, I didn’t plant any trees.

Tim: 18, did you plant any trees?

#18 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Ademise, Female, 78 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, No Education): I planted some Lime saplings.

Tim: When?

#18 (Guiotte Focus Group, Leon Ademise, Female, 78 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, No Education): I planted them after the hurricane.

10 Minit

Tim: Number 15?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I make charcoal from trees.

Tim: You make charcoal?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes

Tim: But you don’t plant trees?

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): No

Tim: Number 2?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): I plant trees, because I live by myself. I don’t have a husband, so I plant any tree that I come across. I plant Coconuts, Custard Apple, Lime. The Limes that I planted have already started to yield fruit.

Marco: When did you plant them?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): After the hurricane.

Tim: And you?

Public/Unidentified Participant: I generally plant Coconuts and Plantains. I planted more after the hurricane.

Tim: What about you, Number 31? Do you plant trees?

Public/Unidentified Participant: I planted just one Apricot (Mammea americana) tree.

Tim: When?

Public/Unidentified Participant: After the hurricane.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Yes, yes! I planted Plantains and Coconuts as well.

Tim: When did you plant them?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): After the hurricane, I planted 3 Coconuts. Insects ate 2 of them. There is an insect under the ground that destroys Coconut Palms.

Tim: What insect is it?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It’s called mawoka.

Tim: Why don’t you plant fransik and madan blan  [Mangos] if they sell better?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): We can’t get them…

Tim: You can’t find them?

Audience: Sometimes we plant them, but they don’t take.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The soil is too dry.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We’ve tried planting them, but we didn’t succeed.

Tim: Ok.

….

Tim: You plant Cedar, Mahogony…

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, we plant CedarMahogony, mawo, Laurel (Lauraceae family).

Tim: And Eucalyptus?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  That too. We plant all of them. They’re all useful.

Tim: Do you ever plant trees to make charcoal?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, there’s no need. Trees that make charcoal reproduce/regenerate on their own.

….

Tim: Is there anything that you would like to add? We will be sure to pass on the information if they decide to provide assistance around trees.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  That’s what we need. We lost the majority of our trees. Now that we have participated in this interview, could you ask on our behalf for an intervention for trees?

Tim: Yes, that’s what we plan to do. We will submit a recommendation. But we don’t know if they will be able to respond to it.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  As you can see, there is a lack of trees. We would ask for your help in reforesting the area again. We lost so many citrus trees, Avocado trees, Mango trees…

Tim: Let me ask you a question, couldn’t you start your own tree nursery?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Sure, we’re used to running nurseries…

Tim: Then why do you need us?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): We don’t have all the expertise.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  There are some people who have more experience than us. People who studied forestry. We are more experienced in planting gardens [than trees]. We could learn from people with experience with trees.

Tim: Ok, so would you benefit from training in tree nurseries? Yes, please go ahead and speak…

#17 (Guiotte Focus Group, Innocent Marie Edeline, Female, 43 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): We also have trouble when we transplant [the trees]. Sometimes they fall sick and we don’t know how to treat them. We don’t know what causes the sickness: if it is a parasite or something else. But someone with expertise could prevent or treat the issue.

Tim: Ok, I agree.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Another challenge we face in starting our own nursery is that we don’t have the right planting material.

Tim: You don’t have seeds?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Right, because there are no more trees here. The hurricane destroyed the trees.

Tim: Ok, but you could always purchase fruit at the market and save the seeds.

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): We do. When we purchase Papaya, we save the seeds.

Marco: But do you have a nursery here?

Audience: No

Tim: Was there ever a nursery?

Audience: No

Tim: Never? Not ever in your lives was there a nursery?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Never

Tim: No? Not even EKS/EPER? Who here worked with them?

Audience: No, we had a nursery, but it wasn’t right here. It was further down the hill. Sometimes they would bring us seedlings.

Tim: Did you buy them?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): The nursery was by the river. There wasn’t a nursery up the hill.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  If you look closely, those trees are from Valery.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Those trees?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, Valery brought them.

Tim: Valery ?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It was Valery that collaborated with EPER

Tim: Was Valery a foreigner?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, he brought Cedar trees, Avocado trees…he brought them to plant here. But there was a heat wave and many of them died. There was a few that survived. We are eager to plant more. We would welcome more trees if an organization provided them.

….

Tim: Does anyone here plant trees?

Islande: Name them.

Tim: Are you actually planting them? For example Number 18, when was the last time you planted a tree?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): Ah! I’m still, I’m still planting trees all the time.

Tim: So, did you plant one yesterday, last week, last year?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, I’m always planting trees.

Tim: When was the last time you planted one?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): Well, I planted a tree in December, just two months ago.

Tim: What kind was it?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): A… a Breadfruit.

Tim: And you, what’s your number, 17?

Tim: When was the last time you planted a tree?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  On January 1, I planted a Breadfruit.

Tim: And you ma’am? No. 2? When was the last time you planted a tree. If you haven’t planted one just say you haven’t.

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years, 4 children, farmer, no education): I haven’t planted any.

Tim And what about you, 20. No. 41?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 4 Children, Trader, no education): I did not plant any.

Tim: Thank you… 15?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I do not plant any.

Tim: 5

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years of age, 7 children, Farmer, no education): January 1st, I planted two coconut trees.

Tim: And you… 20, the last time you planted a tree?

Island: The last time you planted a coconut tree? The last time you plant a tree?

Marco: It can be any time, it could be last year.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 Years, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): I planted.

Tim: This year, last year? You do not need to know exactly.

Marco: Last year, or some other time?

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 Years, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): Last year I planted, I planted a Mango tree.

Tim: A Mango tree. And 16?

Marco: 16, number 16

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 year, 8 children, farmer): The day before yesterday I planted three Breadfruit trees.

Marco: This year?

Tim: OK! Thank you 19, you are 19?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, I planted Breadfruit.

Marco In what year?

Tim: This year?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years, 9 children, farmer, no education): This year.

Tim: Well, so you like planting trees? Do you just leave them to grow on their own?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years, 9 children, farmer, no education): There are some that just grow on their own.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, some grow by themselves.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years, 2 children, teacher, high school): We planted trees.

Islande: They have been planting Bread Fruit trees?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes

Tim: How do you get the seeds? Or…?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Breadfruit seeds, they grow and we plant them.

Nursery

Tim: You do not have a nursery, you do it yourselves?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  You do it on your own.

Tim: You plant them near the house, in a small bag or…?

Public/Unidentified participant Voice: We don’t put them in bags. We just put plant them in the ground.

#: It may start growing there in the ground, then you transplant it.

Tim: So you might just find one growing.

Islande: Like a Breadfruit, it makes its own seedlings. You dig them up and replant them.

#: Yes, they reproduce.

Tim: Well, but you don’t have any nurseries in the area?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No..

Tim: Have you never had a nursery in the area?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes we have had them in the past.

Tim: When?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  All through last December.

Tim: Who ran it?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  EPER

Tim: EPER, OK.

Islande: What did they ask if you had?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  A nursery.

Islande What is in the nursery?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Cabbage, Carrot, Eggplant, Tomato.

Tim: Oh! For your fields?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  For the fields.

##Grafting

Islande: Are there people around here who specialize in grafting trees?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, we don’t have anybody like that. Who does the grafting?

Islande: You don’t graft trees around here?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes, people graft trees, you can make an Orange into a Grapefruit.

Isande: Who knows how to do the grafing?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): People from other places.

Tim: They send specialists?Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Speaking together, unintelligible.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Send information so they can show us how to graft.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They don’t do it for us around here, but there are places where they do it. I’ve seen there are Orange trees that that have really Sweet Oranges..

Islande: But do you ever graft Almond trees?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): … we don’t have a grafting agent, somebody who could do it for us.

Islande: Ah! Nothing… but there are people who know how to do it, you just don’t know them?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Other places?

Islande: No, I mean around here.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, there aren’t any.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Well, there are people who do it.

Islande: There are people who do it, #19?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Natacha: Who, who knows how to do it around here?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): And other people know hiw to do it.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Vigo.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Daniel, and Vigo.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, that’s in other areas, and Phanor.

Islande: So, it’s not actually in Renal.

19: Yes.

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No, it’s not in Renal.

Islande: Where’s Phanor?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  At Charles Crossroads, meaning we ask them to come do it for us, for money.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Sometimes they won’t even come.

Islande: How much do you pay someone to graft a tree for you?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Say, 250 goud, 200 goud.

Tim: You do… you pay for that?

Islande: What kind of tree do you use.

Tim: Did you pay people to do that for you?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  No, I had somebody at one time who needed that done. I sent for someone to come do it for him.

Tim: Has anybody here paid somebody to graft trees on their land?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes.

Tim: Who does it?

Marco: OK, among you all, who are here. Among you…

Tim: Nobody here?

# Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  No.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I have a neighbor who did it.

Tim: OK. A neighbor. OK.

Islande: What did he graft?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Orange. A Sour Orange.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  The neighbor.

Islande: Hmmm!

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  He turned it into a Sweet Orange.

Islande: All of the trees, or in one spot?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Every one of them. He had them cut around the trunk and did it.

##Diseases

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): Number 3. Well, the trees that are most important for us are Mango trees. After that, Breadfruit, Coconut and Soursop – but recently Soursop fruit are spoiled by “limon” (type of fungus).

Tim: Did insects eat them?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): No, it was “limon.” As soon as they produce fruit, something black covers them and rots the heart of the Soursop, so that they are no longer good.

Tim: They just spoil the heart of the Soursop?

….

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Jean Mari, Male, 40 years-old, 0 Children, Mason/Farmer, 3rd Grade): After the hurricane, I planted 3 Coconuts. Insects ate 2 of them. There is an insect under the ground that destroys Coconut Palms.

Tim: What insect is it?

#3 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It’s called mawoka.

Marco: What is a mawoka?

#2 (Guiotte Focus Group, Franҫois Telcina, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, No Education): Mawoka is an insect that tunnels underground and eats the tree’s roots.

Islande: Does the tree die?

Tim: Does it look like a caterpillar?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes, like a caterpillar. Like a maggot.

Marco: It’s eats more than trees. It also eats sweet potatoes. It eats everything it can find.

Audience: Yes!

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): It also burrows into yams.

Tim: Is there no way to kill it?

Audience: Maybe. But we don’t know how to…

Marco: Because it’s under the ground?

Public/Unidentified Participant: There is another insect. A little white bug that makes a nest in the tree. Once it enters the tree, everything rots.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  It’s called “ti mouton” (little sheep).

Tim: Have many trees been lost this way?

Public/Unidentified Participant: Yes, we’ve suffered a lot of damage from it.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  More than anything, it eats manioc. And pigeon peas.

Tim: A little white insect?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  A little white insect that is called “ti mouton.” It also eats peanuts. It sucks the sap from the leaves of the plant, so that it doesn’t produce any peanuts.

Tim: What pests affect sorghum?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Birds eat sorghum

Tim: Do birds pose a big problem to growing sorghum?

Audience: We don’t really cultivate sorghum here.

Tim: Ok, let’s return to wood. You said that you use some trees to make planks?

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): Yes

….

Islande: How about Grapefruit?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): The hurricane destroyed them all.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No it was the Natcom antennae.

Islande: The antennae? What makes you say that?

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): Since Natcom installed the antennae, the Grapefruit trees…

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, as soon as the antennae arrived all of the Grapefruit fell and rotted.

Audience: And our Oranges. Even the Coffee was lost.

Tim: Coffee as well?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, we lost it all.

Tim: There’s no more Coffee?

Audience: No!

Tim: When was the antennae installed?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Oh, a long time ago…

Tim: 2 years? 3 years?

Audience: Longer that!

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Since that time we lost all of our gardens.

Tim: Natcom has only been in the country for 7-8 years.

Marco: But, are you sure the antennae was responsible…?

25 Minit

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): That’s what people say, but we can’t be sure.

Tim: It was around then that harvests started to decline?

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): Yes, it was all ruined. All the Coffee.

Tim: There’s no Coffee at all now?

Audience: No, there’s no Coffee.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): You’ll find some.

Islande: Was the Coffee under the “skolit” affected?[3]

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  The “Skolit” drained the spring that fed the Coffee.

Audience: Something black spread on the Coffee trees, the same thing that covers the Soursop fruit…

Tim: And you don’t have Cacao either now?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  A few trees remain.

#20 (Guiotte Focus Group, Joseph Marie, Female, 45 years-old, 10 Children, Trader, Primary School Diploma): The hurricane uprooted most of them.

Tim: This [black fungus], it doesn’t bother Cacao or sorghum?

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  No, they are not affected.

Islande: Wait, I would like to understand this issue brought by the antennae. What about sweet Oranges. Do you not have any sweet Oranges in this area?

Audience: No, they were all lost.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Other communities with antennaes have reported the same trouble. Even in Santo Domingo they have the same problem.

* Tim/Marco/Islande: Discussion of what cell service providers are in the DR: Natcom, Comcast, Orange or Viva.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  It’s Natcom, I’m sure of it. Natcom brought this trouble.

#26 (Guiotte Focus Group, Etienne Marie Carole, Female, 42 years-old, 7 Children, Trader, 9th Grade): That’s what we hear. We don’t know what to believe, just that there used to be more Grapefruit.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  Yes, we had a lot of Grapefruit growing up.

#16 (Guiotte Focus Group, Civil Jean Claude, Male, 48 years-old, 3 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma):  They used to yield fruit in the month of March. But it was always difficult to find customers to buy them all.

#1 (Guiotte Focus Group, Jean Pierre Renel, Male, 38 years-old, 7 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): I remember harvesting them in December and January.

….

Tim: Ok. Is there anything else to add?

60 Minit

#15 (Guiotte Focus Group, Charles Djedson, Male, 24 years-old, 0 Children, Farmer, Primary School Diploma): One thing that I would like to request is something to combat insects. That would be very useful for us.

Tim: Indeed.

****

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  That’s what I’m saying. We have a bug that gets onto our trees, and every seed that sprouts, it makes it so it can’t grow.

Tim: They get on what?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Our trees.

Tim: All your trees?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, they’re black. Black bugs.

Tim: They get on all of your trees?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  On every one of them.

Marco: But what do you want them to do?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  We’d like to find something…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Some product…

Islande: They get on the Neems, too?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Everything, as long as it’s a big tree.

Islande: Neems?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Here’s how they are. See those black leaves, when that happens on a single fruit, it won’t grow, the tree won’t grow any more. It’s like a poison.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Even if you put a little… it’s inside the mother, it won’t grow any more.

Tim: When did that start?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  How many years ago did that start?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Several years ago.

Tim: Two years ago? Three?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Yes, two years. Two years.

Tim: Before Hurricane Mathew?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes, before.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): One important things is that when the fruit are ready, worms get into the Mangoes. We need something to prevent that. You should give us something to fix the Mangoes. It’s something that hit the trees. You might have beautiful Mangoes, but you can’t find one to eat because they’ve all got worms. They’re no good.

Marco: OK! #16, do you have one last thing to say?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Me?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): I don’t really have anything else to say. I think we’ve reached a good stopping point.

Marco: OK.

Islande: OK. Let me say something about those trees when you see them like that. If you have a lot of fruit you don’t want to lose, what do you do?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We don’t do anything.

Male non participant: Because we don’t know anything we can do.

Tim: Yes, you don’t have that…

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We don’t know what to do for them.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): We don’t know what to do for them.

##Preferring Assistance

Tim: Is there anything important we’re missing about trees, anything you think we should know? Something you know, but we don’t. Imagine. You’re here, you’re working, but now you’re looking for an intervention, a project that can help you with your trees, what would you ask for, number 19? What assistance would you ask for if there was someone looking to give you a hand?

Islande: What would you ask for, if someone came and offered to lend a hand?

Tim: With your trees.

Islande: Hmmm.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): With trees?

Islande: Hmmm.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): I’d ask them to give me Grigri trees (Bullet trees).

Tim: To give you Grigri trees.

Islande: #19, why do you need them to give you Grigri trees?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): They’re good for making houses. They make good posts. That’s something valuable.

Islande: Are there any of those trees in the area already?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Yes.

Tim: Grigri, you have them?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): There are some here, yes.

Islande: But, I didn’t hear anybody mention these trees earlier.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Bwa woz trees.

Islande: Ah! Woz, Grigri, it has several names. Ah, OK.

Tim: And you, number 5, if someone came to do an intervention with trees, a big enterprise like HEKS EPER, what advice would you give them on how to help you all with trees?

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): What advice would I give them?

Tim: Yes, would you ask for help with fruits, for help with charcoal?

Marco: But only with trees.

50 minutes

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): For trees only. Mangoes. We could use that, too, because we’ve lost a lot of Mango trees. We used to have lots of Mangoes, but not so much any more. We need more Mangoes.

Tim: You mean you would like a nursery with Mango trees?

#Man: Yes, for us to plant.

Tim: Horn Mangoes?

#Man: Blan, francique, for us to plant.

Tim: Franciques, are there people who come here to buy those to export?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): No, there aren’t.

Tim: People sell them in the streets. And you, 16, what kind of project would you like to see?

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Well, I’d go into Mangoes more, too. Because, if I could find Francique Mangoes I’d plant them. Madanm Blan, I’d plant them. I have Labich and Kanel Mangoes, but I don’t have the other kinds.

Tim: OK, and 15, what kind of project would you want, to help with trees?

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I’d ask for Coconut trees, because in the past we grew lots of Coconuts, but now we hardly have any. I’d do an intervention with them. If they were looking for a project, I’d ask them to do that for us, to give us Coconuts, and Mangoes, too. They’re very important.

Tim: OK, 41?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): We need a lot of Avocadoes, because storms have killed our Avocado trees.

Tim: OK, and now you want a nursery?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Yes, because we hardly have any now.

Tim: 2?

#2 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 68 years-old, 4 children, farmer, no education): Me, I think we need Limes, and Oranges.

Tim: Ah! You said that. 18.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Well, what I think we need is for someone to come graft the few Mango trees we have left, so they can reproduce. Understand? So they could produce nice Mangoes, and people would be able to have them.

Tim: Graft the ones already here?

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, for people to sell, and eat, too.

Tim: Good comments. 17?

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  Me, what I’d ask for is fruit trees, like Soursop trees.

Tim: No, I’m not asking what everybody said about fruit trees. I’m asking what trees interest you the most.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  That’s what I’m saying. We have a bug that gets onto our trees, and every seed that sprouts, it makes it so it can’t grow.

Tim: But, maybe it wasn’t clear. Let’s put the question another way. What help do you need with fruit trees, and with trees for making boards, and with charcoal. I don’t know what kind of aid. You’d prefer fruits?

Piblik: Yes. Rather than boards?

Islande: Rather than charcoal?

Tim: Over charcoal?

Marco: #19, choose one out of those three.

Tim: Imagine I’ve come here to help you.

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): So, what would I choose among those two things?

Tim: Out of those three things, I come here as the head of some enterprise, some organization, I’m an outsider and I tell you I’m here to help you. I give you three choices: I’ll help you with fruit trees, I’ll help you with charcoal, or I’ll help you with making boards. What would you choose?

#19 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 71 years-old, 9 children, farmer, no education): Well, I’d prefer boards.

Marcos: With trees for making boards.

Tim: Boards, OK. And you, 16, fruit, charcoal, or boards?

Marco: #16.

Tim: 16, boards, fruit, charcoal.

Islande: 16, charcoal.

#16 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 51 years-old, 8 children, farmer): Well, me, as I said, I think Limes, I think support for Limes.

Tim: OK, fruit.

Islande: OK, fruit.

Tim: OK, #20.

Islande: #20

Tim: Boards, charcoal, fruit.

#20 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 90 years-old, 4 Children, Farmer, no education): I need Breadfruit.

Tim: OK.

#5 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 63 years-old, 7 children, Farmer, no education): So, I already talked about Mangoes. I said Mangoes are something we used to have around here in great quantities, but they’ve been destroyed in storms. So we need to do something to bring them back.

Tim: OK. 15.

#15 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 32 years-old, 2 Children, Trader, 6th Grade): I prefer fruit.

Tim: You’re sticking with fruit.

Tim:Ok, #41, you’re sticking with fruit.

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Yes.

Islande: And how are you going to make charcoal?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  We make it with what we have, with whatever bits of wood we have.

55 minutes

Tim: It takes care of itself?

Public/Unidentified participant (Focus Group Renal):  Yes.

Tim: OK, 18.

#18 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 2 children, teacher, high school): Yes, fruit. Fruit are most important for me.

Islande: 41, you said something?

#41 (Focus Group Renal, Female, 42 years-old, 4 Children, Trader, no education): Yes, I did.

#17 (Focus Group Renal, Male, 37 years-old, 3 children, Mason/carpenter, 4th yr. high school):  I would like trees for making boards.

Tim: #41 said fruit.

Tim: #17 says boards.

Islande: You both spoke.

Tim: Yes, both did.

Islande: OK!

Male non participant: Excuse me, may I ask a question?

Tim: Yes, ask away.

Male non participant: Because I feel a little uneasy. I’m here, but you’re asking everyone.

Tim: I didn’t ask you because you weren’t here in the beginning. If you have something to say you can say it.

Male non participant: I see everyone has a little thing in their hands. I should have one too, so I can ask questions, too.

Tim: You can ask a question.

Male non participant: I can ask a question? What did you ask them?

Tim: What kind of intervention would you prefer, one with charcoal, with fruit, or with trees to cut into boards?

Male non participant: Trees to make boards?

Marco: Is that what you would choose?

Tim: All… you would choose lumber?

Male non participant: Part boards, part food.

Marcos: Out of those three, which would you choose? You have to choose just one. Which one?

Male non participant: Choose one!

Marco: Chose one.

Male non participant: Fruit. Mango.

Tim: Mango. Which Mango?

Male non participant: Big Mango.

Tim: What kind of Mango?

Male non participant: Mango Madan Blan.

Tim: Madan blan. OK. You think we’re good? OK, does anyone have anything they’d like to add? Is there anything important we should know? I’m going to take what we’ve discussed to the bosses.

Marco: Anything you think is important for us to know.

Male non participant: We have Madan fransique.

Tim: Fransique.

NOTES

[1] Full Kreyol sentence: Islande: Èske anba skolit ki detwi kafe ?

[2] Full Kreyol sentence: Pye kalbas nou te konn genyen’l nou te konn genyen’l anpil nou te konn itil tankou lè nou bezwen kwi, nou koupe nou jwenn kalbas la nou koupe’l nou fè kwi nou sèvi avè a avèk kwi a tankou lontan moun yo te konn renmen tranpe vyann nan kwi epi siw gen yon lòt bagay pou’w pouse pou’w mete ou ka mete’l nan pou konsève yo mete’l nan kwi.

[3] Full Kreyol sentence: Islande: Èske anba skolit ki detwi kafe ?

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