> ENGLISH TRANSCRIPTS

School Feeding Program – WFP/MENFP – Local Procurement Focus Groups

16 focus groups translated to English and organized by topic. All were conducted between September 2016 and September 2017 as part of an evaluation of a WFP/MENFP local procurement school feeding program in Nippes.

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16 focus groups translated to English and organized by topic. All were conducted between September 2016 and September 2017 as part of an evaluation of a WFP/MENFP local procurement school feeding program in Nippes.

Focus Group #1: Female School Yard Merchants [Petit Riviere (Dipi)], six participants, all female, 34 to 64 years of age.  Conducted on 03/26/2017.

Focus Group #2: Rice Farmers (Kawouk), six participants, all male, 20 to 66 years of age. Conducted on 3/27/2017.      

Focus Group #3: Rural Parents and Members of Kitchen Committee (Cholèt), seven participants, seven female and one male, 35 to 53 years of age. Conducted on 03/29/2017.

Focus Group # 4: School Directors and Teachers, six participants, three male and three female, 31 to to 57 years of age, conducted on 3/27/2017.

Focus Group #5: All Male Farmers (Salaniac 2), four participants, all male, 22 to 48 years of age, conducted on 3/27/2017

Focus Group #6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann), four participants, all female, 32 to 55 years of age, conducted on  3/28/2017.

Focus Group #7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Commitees, six participants, all female, 23 to 70 years of age. 3/28/2017.

Focus Group #8: Association Leaders (Nan Chantrel/Petit Rivye), three participants,  all male, 28. 42 and 53 years of age, conducted on 11/8/2016

Focus Group #9: All Male, Farmers (Salagnac 1), four particpants, all male, ages unrecorded, conducted on 9/11/2016.

Focus Group #10: Children in Cholette, three participants, one male and two females, 8 to 13 years of age, conducted on 8/07/17.

Focus Group #11: Children in Dupuy, five participants, two males and three females, 11 to 16 years of age, conducted on 7/ 07 /17.

Focus Group #12: Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), five participants, all female, ages unknown, conducted on 07/28/17.

Focus Group #13: All Male Farmers (Tamarin), seven participants, all male, 37 to 67 years of age, conducted on  9/07/17.

Focus Group #14: School Canteen Supervisors, five participants, all male, ages unknown,  conducted on 11/17.

Focus Group #15: School Canteen Supervisors, three participants, all male, 36, 55, and 57 years of age, conducted on 8 July 2017.

Focus Group #16: Traders in Dupuy. Three participants,  all female, 40, 47, and 60 years of age, conducted on 7/07/2017.

Below are the 16 focus groups translated to English and organized by topic. 

Here is the list of topics. You can use the phrase with hashtag to do keyword searches.

#PRAISE FOR THE PROGRAM

#HISTORY OF SCHOOL CANTEENS

#PARENTAL FEEDING

#IMPACT OF PROGRAM ON CHILD BEHAVIOR and SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE

#BEFORE THE CANTEEN EXISTED

#FEEDING NOW THAT THERE IS A CANTEEN

#BUYING FOOD AT SCHOOL

#NEGATIVE IMPACT OF FEEDING

#HOW THE FEEDING PROGRAM FUNCTIONS

#TIME OF FEEDING

#SCHOOL FEEDING PREFERRED FOODS

#SCHOOL VS HOME COOKED FOOD

#PROCESS OF MAKING THE MEAL AND TIME IT TAKES

#CONSISTENCY OF PROGRAM AND DAILY FEEDING

#FOOD VARIETY

#SCHOOL FEEDING PREFERRED FOODS

#SCHOOL VS HOME COOKED FOOD

#FEES

#AMOUNTS

#SCARCITY OF MONEY

#UNDERSTANDING OF THE PURPOSE OF FEES

#PROBLEMS PAYING FEES

# COLLECTING FEES

#STRATEGIES TO COLLECT FEES

#LOCAL PROCUREMENT: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND CAPACITY

#PROVENANCE

#BEING A FARMER

#WOMEN ARE FARMERS TOO

#CROP TYPES

#SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES (#BUYING GARDENS)

#DECLINE IN LIVELIHOOD

#TENURE

#PROCESSING

#INPUTS

#WORKERS

#CHILDREN AND WORK

#TRADING

#TRADER BUSINESS DESCRIPTIONS

#LOVE TRADING

#CREDIT

#MEN SELLING

#WOMEN SELLING

#MEASURE

#VALUE OF LOCAL FOODS

#IMPORTED vs. LOCAL FOOD

#LOCAL CAPACITY

#PURCHASING LOCALLY

#PILOT PROGRAM PURCHASING EXPERIENCE

#ASSOCIATIONS

#WANTING AID

#THE SWEET & SALTY DILEMMA

#SALT-FOOD

#SWEET-FOOD AND WORMS

#REFUSALS TO FEED SWEET-FOOD

#SOLUTIONS TO THE SWEET & SALTY DILEMMA

#ALTERNATIVE FOODS

#Summary Example for alternative foods

#SUMMARY OF COMPLAINTS, PROBLEMS, and FRUSTRATIONS

#FOOD QUALITY

#FOOD QUANTITY

#COLLECTING FEES

#MAKING THE FOOD

#PAY FOR THE COOKS

#NOT ENOUGH TIME

#MILK

#FOOD DOES NOT TASTE GOOD

#NOT ENOUGH FOOD

#PAYING WHEN CHILD IS ABSENT

#PROBLEMS GETTING WOOD

#SUMMARY STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS PAYING FOR MATERIALS

#IMPACT OF HURRICANE MATTHEW (OCTOBER 4TH 2016)

#THE ISSUE OF TEACHING AND TEACHER’S PAY

#SUMMARY STATEMENT ON TEACHERS ROLE AND PAY

#ROLE OF SCHOOL DIRECTOR AND PARENTAL RELATIIONS WITH HIM

#CONTINUATION OF THE PROGRAM

#RECOMMENDATIONS

#HELPING WITH PRODUCTION AD ACCESS TO CAPITAL

#GETTING THE CHLDREN AND SCHOOL MORE INVOLVED

#OTHER PRODUCTS

#PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT\

#FOOD QUALITY/TASTE

#PAYING COOKS

#MATERIALS

#TURNING THE PROGRAM OVER TO A THIRD PARTY

#RULES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

#PURCHASING LOCALLY

#APATHY

#PRAISE FOR THE PROGRAM

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). My name is Blank_D. I have 6 children in the school. I have 5 here and I have one in SCHOOL_4. The feeding program helps me a lot. What makes me say that, I do some trading in the [school] yard. It’s not enough to give all my children what they need….. I can tell you that the canteen helps me a great, great, great deal. When the children come back from recreation, they get fed right there. The food helps me a great, great deal.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). I have 5 children, I have four children who are in school, three of them are in a school with a feeding program. Five children, and they got no father. Their father died. It’s a little money that I borrowed from the State that has allowed me to manage with those children… The canteen is useful, when they come home they’ve already eaten. I go and do what I can so that I have some money for [to feed] them later. I’m telling you [WFP] thank you very much.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). … The canteen is useful to me. The little money I make can’t help those children. I have three children who are in the canteen and I have three who are not in the canteen program. It helps me. Sometimes I get up, if I put a coin in their hands, that coin can’t do anything for them. I’m telling you the canteen helps me a lot. I say thank you for that.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). It’s working well. The children eat every day. And they eat well.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Yes, [the canteen is] good, because sometimes the children go to school without eating. Now, when they reach school, they are going to get fed. It’s very good.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Yes. Food is useful to the children. It is useful to me because after the hurricane, you know there are problems and misery. All our gardens are destroyed, we have nothing. But when the children go to school, they get fed. That is quite good.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). First of all, we thank WFP, ROPANIP, and BND, the team that is working for the school feeding program. We are satisfied with the team. They give local products. It is a great satisfaction. Because they could give us lousy imported foods. It is wrong for the children. The local foods have vitamins and protein for the children and that allows for school performance to be raised.….We are happy when there is free lunch…. Everything about the feeding program is good.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). Well, the school feeding program works good. It works good. It works good and it is good for the school. … The school feeding program works good. The parents make weak contributions, but the school feeding program works good.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). It helps me. I may wake up and decide to not cook. When my children get to school they get fed. It helps me, it helps me.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). Five children, I have five children in school.…Yes, there is no problem, I know they are going to eat…

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8–(female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). The canteen program is really a good thing. Like I told Natacha before, as soon as children enter the school, it’s enough for them to see the smoke from the kitchen and they get excited. You understand?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). How does it help you? If for example you have 6 children. If I give them each 25 Goud. That’s 30 dollars. But since they’ve had food at the school, I finish giving them a little food in the morning, I give them each 5 Goud. The rest of the money stays with me. It’ll stay with me because I won’t spend it all. Because the canteen is useful.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): For me, the school feeding program, how should I say? I am happy with the program. Here is why. Sometimes the school starts at 7:00 a.m. sharp. The children come from way up [the mountain]. You don’t have time to make anything to give them. With 10:00 feeding, the children are ok. Now, come recreation they already give them food to eat. It’s a protection for parents.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): The canteen program is truly, truly a good thing, truly. Even more so because of the time change. You don’t even have time to make food in the morning. But when the time arrives, as soon as it’s 10:00 the food is cooked, eh recreation, they feed them. It’s very good.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): …We are very happy now that they gave the canteen…

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Yes, he [their child] has brought us food and showed us how good it tastes. Like when there is stew. He told me, ‘drink the stew, I don’t like starchy vegetables.’ [laughs]. Sometimes he takes a little bowl to his father and shows him. That’s in the national school there. As soon as you hear him get up in the morning [he’s out the door], I’m the one who has to run after him to give him a coin. The canteen helps a lot.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). What is good about the project? The food is very good…. But the food is good not only for the children. For us too because there are parents whose children go to school [without eating] and they know that when they get to school they will find something [to eat]. You see how it is good for us and for the children?

What us parents can say, it’s better for us than for the children because it’s good food they send to the children. They send for us. It’s for us because we are parents. Generally [spoken in French], when children leave their house [in the morning] you should find something to give them. But, because they know that at school, director BLANK_A, he will find food. I say, ‘’Sweat-heart, my little child, go bath. Get dressed and go to school. You’ll eat something at school. You don’t see that your Mama doesn’t have anything darling. Mama doesn’t have anything.’ Is it not good for us?

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #6: (male; 35 years old; farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; No children in the program). What do I think of the program? The program is an activity that helps the children. So, there are parents who don’t give their child anything to eat to go to school and, sometimes, even you may not have enough to feed your own child before they go to school. Sometimes what you give them to eat is not enough to keep them for the day. When the children go to school and they get something to eat, that helps you as parent. It is a wonderful activity.

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #3: (male; 26 years old; farmer; 2nd grade; No children; No children in the program). I like the program because I am a farmer. Since there is a place that I can directly send my products without any problem that is good.

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #9: (male; 22 years old, Farmer, Student; 10th grade; None children; No children in the program). It will be very helpful even though I do not have children yet. The hot meal will not only be for the children, but the parents also. Sometimes you might get up and have just an egg and a banana to give to the child or a piece of bread. Some parents give their child some money. But when the child gets food at school, that helps the parents save money. It’s a good thing.

Participant #6: (Male; 66 years old; Farmer, Pastor; 6th grade; 3 children; No child in the program). It is a good program because they are helping us. Especially for the children. Sometimes they leave home without eating and when they arrive they receive substance, they receive food. And it helps us. It helps us as parents. Sometimes the parents don’t have anything at all to give to the children. Do you understand? But when they arrive in school they will get something to eat. To me this a great thing.

Focus Group 2: Rice Farmers Kwaku; Participant #5 (Male; 50 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; No child in the program): A program is not good if it doesn’t get to the people. If the program does what it has said it would do, it is good. I believe that WFP provides different types of food for all the schools…. I appreciate that because I am a Haitian citizen. WFP is doing it for Haiti, it’s not doing it someplace else. It’s for our children, our friends, and our ancestors. WFP is helping. I really appreciate that.

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Public [Some participants are talking together with the monitor] “Yes, we do not have cook for the children. Yes, if we give them bread and coffee they can wait for the food at school.

***

Socio-Dig: If it was you who was managing the program, would you leave it like it is or would you change something about it?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): For me, it’s not bad. It’s good for the children. They make food, they give them nutrition, that’s good. They do not spice the food with bouillon cubes. They give them vegetables every time. They have different foods that they give them and with juice, food that doesn’t go through a lot of shipment and storage, that doesn’t have chemicals in it. It’s good for the children.  Me, I don’t see that there is anything wrong with it. It’s very good.

Socio-Dig: It’s very good. OK.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): The canteen that is in the school, it’s very good for the children because it’s natural food, they give natural food. …

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  When they do something to give children food, it helps the parents a lot.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  Parents cannot have the money to give their children to go to school with. But because of the canteen, they can give their head a rest.  If a single worm were to kill a child in the school, it would….

***

Socio-Dig: Do you like the canteen?

Children: Yesss!

Socio-Dig: Why? Let’s begin with you. What does the canteen do for you and for your parents?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): It does a lot for us. Because there are some days, I go to school, my mother goes to sell, she doesn’t leave any money for us. That, that can give me a program because when I get to school I can’t eat. But now, even if they don’t prepare the food early in the morning, at least we don’t go home hungry.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Me, sometimes I finish bathing, I put my uniform on, my mother and father don’t have anything to give me. I go to the kitchen at my house, get a little pebble of salt and put it under my tongue. After that I go to school. Because, because I take the little pebble of salt, that’s what helps me get through day until they feed us. As soon as they feed us, I’m good to go. After that I go home.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): After that they ring the bell and I go to my house.

Socio-Dig: OK. You go to your house.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Me, my mother often gets up in the morning and she doesn’t have anything to give me.  I say, “You don’t have anything to give me, I am going.” When I get to school I can’t do anything.  I sit in class and we work.  Joking keeps me going. Now, when they let us go for recess, even though my mother didn’t give me anything, I eat.  I have friends, their mother gave them some money to buy fried dough, I go into the classroom and eat with them.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): But before they let us go, they feed us. If I leave early…. [Sound a push cart passing]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): There is a way that the canteen is very useful to me, and it helps my parents too.  Even that doesn’t make me afraid. When I get home from school, they may not even give me money, they may not even have food, because there are no days when we don’t get fed at school. That makes me not afraid. I just study.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): When they have the canteen, I eat when my mother isn’t there. When my mother comes home she makes the food I eat.

***

Socio-Dig: At 2 o’clock.  Does the canteen help you guys study more?

Children: Yes, yes.

Socio-Dig: It make us do better in school?

Children: Yes, yes.

Socio-Dig: Really?

Children: Yes, yes.

Socio-Dig: Why?

Children: Because it helps us.  When we eat, when our stomachs are full we don’t get discouraged. We more…

Socio-Dig: You work more?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK, do you think the canteen should stay?

Children: Yesss!

Socio-Dig: If they were to say that they were going to take the canteen away, what would you do?

Children: That would bother us a lot. That would discourage us a lot.

Socio-Dig: It would discourage you. OK. Each person can say something.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Because it would discourage us, because at about 11 o’clock you see that before you get out of school you’re going to eat. Sometimes our parents don’t have money to give us. We go to the canteen, we eat, we’re satisfied. When we get home, we aren’t so worried about food because we’ve already eaten. But if they were to take the canteen away, it would bother us a lot.

Socio-Dig: It would bother you a lot, OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Like, sometimes food is useful because when it’s about 11 o’clock we make food. Because food makes us study a lot, makes us understand what the professor is saying. Sometimes when they had not yet made the canteen we were hungry, the professor would be working on the chalk board, we couldn’t even follow him, we got discouraged.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): If they were to take away the canteen it would discourage me a lot. And it’s not just me that it would bother. It would bother all the children. But there are times when they make food, when I eat fired dough, I don’t worry about food. I go get it, I get it and eat it, but it’s not really what I would even eat it.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): And if it was stew that I took, sometimes I would get it and eat the tubers without taking the bean sauce.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): If they would take away the school canteen it would be like a terrible thing they did to us. It’s not only us, but also the parents because it helps them a great, great, great deal. When our parents have the means to give us 5 goud, they know that we’re going to eat something at school no matter what. That’s all I have to say.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): If they were to take the canteen away, it would not be good for my parents.

Socio-Dig: OK. Children, I say thank you. I would like to take a photo with you. Can we do that?

Children: Yes!

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Well, what I can say, eh, let’s begin in a general way to get to the point. The school canteen helps us in several ways. It permits the children to learn, that’s something we all observe. Because when children are hungry, as my colleague was just saying there, they don’t eat, they don’t listen when you speak to them… I lose time teaching them. And when the child gets home, if he doesn’t find something to eat, he won’t pick up a book to study. So, the next day when you expect him to come and recite his lesson he doesn’t know it. He didn’t do his homework. He doesn’t know. But when the child gets fed he can’t tell the teacher that he was hungry, after all, he ate in front of the teacher. So, the dividends in terms of learning increase with the feeding. The parents too, you know the economic situation here in Haiti, when they know that the child got fed at school they don’t have to spend so much time trying to find something to feed them before they come to school, because they’ll get fed at school. That’s the advantage of the canteen I’m trying to show you. And what’s more, us too, the teachers and the director, we sense the improvement.

Unidentified Participant: They’re better, they’re better.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): My experience when I wasn’t yet in the canteen program, I always said that come Friday, there is a bogey man in the school. It’s a way of speaking to explain that children don’t come to school on Friday. There’s a bogey man that’s devouring the children on Fridays because it’s four days, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, but come Friday, the children don’t come to school. The parents are happy to say it’s the weekend, there is no school. But now, it’s my impression that if we had a canteen on Saturday, the children would come to school. The rain is pouring down, no one can go out, I get to school at 7:00 am or 7:15 am, well at 6:30 am the children are already in the school yard. As soon as I arrive they’re yelling good morning director and at the same time they go and check what’s happening behind the school. When they get to school they say, ‘what’s going on, there’s no cooking fire yet today? There’s no food today?

[Laughter]

They say, ‘no, I saw the cook…that means there’s food, just wait…’ When they come they see that bad weather is coming, 15 or 20 of them have arrived, they say, ‘let’s pray to God that the rain gets worse now, so the rest of the students don’t come so we get more to eat.

[Laughter]

That shows you how the canteen is useful. If there was no canteen it would very much affect the students. It would really disturb them. For example, I just said a little while ago what would happen if there was no food on the fire? Well, let’s suppose they didn’t make food. Now, you would have to give the children something to replace the hot meal. It can’t be something sweet. If it’s something sweet I think it could make the children sick, like a type of worm or something like that. But when the children eat salt-food I think it can help his body and permit him to study better.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): Well, me, in the morning, when I see the children come to school, the first place they look is in the kitchen to see if there’s a fire. As soon as they see there’s fire you see that they’re happy. Sometimes I’m in the office and I hear children say, ‘teacher, my stomach hurts.’ ‘Your stomach hurts? You didn’t eat this morning?’ ‘No.’ Or I send them to get some fried dough from the vendor while they wait for the food to cook. And when they don’t have any food, you look at how much I spend per month. The vendor, I must pay her for fried dough that I owe. Why? For the children. When the children come complaining, you can’t let them go like that. …

#HISTORY OF SCHOOL CANTEENS

***

Socio-Dig: For how long have you had school canteens in the area?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Two years.

Socio-Dig: Two years. You always have food?

Public: Yes, yes, yes we still find food.

***

Socio-Dig: Alright. Before the WFP school feeding program came, was there any free lunch program in the schools?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). No, there was not, only WFP. Only WFP. Before WFP there was nothing.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). It seems there were other schools that benefited from the program. No, we did not benefit yet.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers,  Public: We did not have one at all.

Socio-Dig: Ok. You did not have one at all. Ok What difference is there between BND and WFP? Ok you can talk number 6.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #6: (Female; 46 years old; School teacher; Rheto; 1 child; 1 child in the program). The difference is because WFP was not local products. It was foreign products they used to give. It is good for the children to eat natural [local] foods. It is good for their health.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). However it’s only WFP. If it’s WFP, at that time it’s not BND that used to give it, but WFP.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): Myself, the school where my child is at in ZON_1, since the school was there, they’ve had a canteen. Regardless that WFP had not yet begun with their canteen program, the school always had a canteen.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): …Like a long time ago, there was still a school canteen. But at that time, they used to send several types of food. It wasn’t just rice. They sent cracked wheat. They sent wheat flour. They sent rice. They sent milk. In those days, if today they cooked rice, tomorrow they cooked cracked wheat.

Socio-Dig: Ok. But when you said that they always had food, did they use local or imported food?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): No, at that time it was a different priest who was responsible for the Parish. His name was Machan. I believe he died.

Socio-Dig: But it was local produce?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Foreign?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): The Priest/Bishop who always sent that aid. That aid came but seems that the priest only sent rice. Because the same as with Fondelyann that’s the only food they gave the children. It was only on Wednesday that they fed stew.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerce; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). We had a canteen already. They used to give the children crackers, salted crackers.

Socio-Dig: That was a good thing.

Public: Yes. They used to give them early.

Socio-Dig: They gave it early? After that, did they give anything else? Or was it only that?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). Yes, they used to give food. They gave potato porridge. They passed each class and they gave the children crackers.

#PARENTAL FEEDING IN MORNING, FEEDING BEFORE THE PROGRAM, SNACK MONEY, AND FEEDING IN AFTERNOON

#IMPACT OF PROGRAM ON CHILD BEHAVIOR AND SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE

#YES IT HAS HELPED

Socio-Dig: Ok.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). I can tell you that when there was not a canteen, the children, sometimes you would hear them complaining of stomachaches. As soon as they would get to school their stomachs are aching. What’s wrong is that they’re hungry. But since there is a canteen we don’t have that anymore. The children learn very well.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program).…Me, I have a young girl, a child who isn’t yet 14 years of age. As soon as she gets up, she combs her hair, she get’s dressed, she goes. Me, I can be outside at recreation and she doesn’t come to me. It’s when she finishes eating at the canteen that she comes to me. Later I can give her something that she can eat… She knows she has something to eat. It doesn’t interest her. She knows to come buy some cookies or lolipop. She is not interested in waiting for food.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). … Sometimes when there was no school feeding program, I used to have problems with the children. When I was in the office, they would come and say: teacher I have a stomachache. Every now and then they said teacher I have stomachache. Rapidly, I would send them to buy some fried dough from the vendors. The lady, we also used to see her going outside to buy for them. With the school lunch program we face less of those problems. And I used to have a lot of absent students. But with the school feeding program there is none of that anymore. The school feeding program works good. The parents make weak contributions, but the school feeding program works good.…. Sometimes, a long time ago, when we didn’t have a canteen yet, there were children who came to school saying their stomachs hurt. Sometimes it’s not really a stomachache. It’s hunger. The director used to take the children, buy fried dough, and feed them. He paid for it himself. And after that you would see the child running around the school yard, playing during recreation. But now, we don’t have that.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): There are times when we really do not have anything to give the children. They just brush their teeth, put on their cloths and go…

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): … I am happy with the canteen that gives children food at the school. There are times when parents can’t find anything to give their children in the morning.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8–(female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Eh, like when you were a child, especially me, when my mother had some work to do, like washing clothes for people or ironing for people. As soon as I saw my mother ironing I knew I wasn’t going to be eating anything that day. Now I would start crying. You’re a child who’s a nuisance. Now for her to leave the iron and feed me. It’s the same with children, as soon enter school and they see there is no fire, they’re not happy. Sometimes a parent can give the child a little change. There are children who come to school with three Goud. My God! Calculate what three Goud can do. It can’t do anything. A single piece of hard candy to suck on. And it’s not all hard candies that sell for one Goud. There are those that sell for four and five Goud. The children come and ask me for three little pieces of hard candy. The canteen is useful to mother and father of the child. When children come to school early, especially when the time changes, but as soon as they see it’s 10:00 and the women have already prepared food. There are children who would like to eat two plates of food. The canteen is so useful. That’s why we have to say to PAM thank you very much because they have made a dream for us reality. That’s what I have to say.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program) …. The local foods have vitamins and protein for the children and that allows for school performance to be raised…. We are happy when there is free lunch. All the children come to school. Performance improves…They only have to plan for night, to find something to give them so that they can study and the teachers won’t have too much problem with them the next day. Because they know these children can find food to eat. So they cannot come to tell the teachers that they are hungry and they could not study, ‘Teacher I was hungry.’ Everything about the feeding program is good.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). Sometimes when there was no school feeding program, I used to have problems with the children. When I am in the office, they always come and say: teacher I have a stomachache…. And I used to have a lot of absent students. But with the school feeding program there is none of that anymore. The school feeding program works good. The parents make weak contributions, but the school feeding program works good…

#NO IT MIGHT NOT HELP

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). But before the canteen program I had a nephew who was in school. He wasn’t so interested. But it wasn’t the lack of the canteen that made him not interested. He was more interested in playing. When he got his report card he didn’t pass. One time he made an average of 40 percent. Well, he was going into exams and his father told him, ‘If you don’t pass, soon as you get home and give me that report card I’m going to take you up the mountain and beat you with a stick. I’m going to beat you to death with that stick.’ When he got his report card he passed. Then along came the canteen. In the morning, his mother would give him 5 Gourd. When his mother would say she didn’t have money, he would say, ‘aaaa’. Sometimes he would tell his mother, ‘Mama, you can keep the money, I don’t need it. I’ll eat at school.’ He always passed, always first in his class. Now he’s at school in the afternoon [secondary school]. He makes good grades. Well, he knows that school in the afternoon has no canteen. When he comes home from school they feed him. Often he says, ‘me, my stomach is full. (laughs). I tell him, thanks for the canteen. For me, if they end the canteen, I’ll see that as a big problem. Me, the year that happens I’m going to feel bad. It’s me who has to beat to make butter. [Contradictions in the original]

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). I have two boys. One bigger and one smaller. The smaller one is always more interested in passing. It’s been the same since before there was a canteen right up to when there was a canteen. It’s always been like that. The littler one has always gotten better grades than the bigger one. It’s not that the canteen interests him. It’s like the bigger one is just more susceptible to being corrupted.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program).I have two children in school. I had a lot of kids. They’ve already finished school. It’s just the two that are still in school. The little boy, him, he doesn’t want to learn anything at all. Every day he tears a book up. I buy a half dozen double-line notebooks for him, little notebooks with 10 pages, I don’t know what he does with them. The teacher has not put a pen to any of them a single time to give him a grade. He doesn’t know anything at all. I can try to show him. His brother can show him. He doesn’t learn anything. He’s only interested in playing. So I went and asked the teacher. The teacher told me that he’ just a child who only cares about goofing off. When the teacher is instructing the other children he’s off playing. He doesn’t want to learn.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). In the same way, there are children who come to school, they don’t like school. The parents are obliged to send them because you can’t keep children in the house. There are children who are not interested in school. There are children too that, as soon as they get near the school entrance, they’re late, the people at the entrance could let them in, but they just watch the people go into the school. That means that there are those who are interested and there are those who are not really interested [whether they have a canteen or not].

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). When the children go to school in the morning, if they send them back home, like if they did not come on Friday, or if they have a little problem with the director and he sends them back home, now, they don’t want to go. They stay in the school yard. Now that always happens, even when they had the canteen, even when they didn’t have the canteen. The children know that when they get home the parents are going to beat them [because they got sent home]. There are those who get to school late. When they get there, the director sends them home. They hide. If the director sees them, he makes them leave. They hide. They stay. Despite that when they stay, they won’t get any food, they stay anyway. That means that the children have something that interests them.

#BEFORE THE CANTEEN EXISTED

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Before it was here, we cooked and make juice to give them to go to school.

Socio-Dig: So did you did this every morning for your kids?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Yes, I did.

Socio-Dig: In 5 days of classes, how many days a week did you cook and make juice for them before going to school?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Every school day. But since the canteen is here, we make the food and they do not want it. If you have a 10 Goud you give it to them. For the canteen, you just give 10 dollars, 20 dollars [per month] …

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #3: (Female; 43 years old; School teacher; Philo; 1 child; 1 child in the program). I remember before WFP used to give us food, that was important indeed. But before the food was ready, the children used to go buy candy to eat. As now it’s BND that is financing the program, I don’t know how it is. When it was WFP, I know the children would go buy candy before the food was cooked, so they were not waiting for the food. [Now that there is a canteen], After the break, the children go to eat. Even if you’re giving a lesson, they don’t follow it. They’re focused on the food. But if they could find something to eat before the food is cooked, I see it is better for them. I see they don’t do that anymore.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): …OK, I always made food for them before they went to school… Now, you have a chance to feed the children. When they went at 8:00 and got out at 1:00, you gave 10 Goud. [But now] Even if you don’t have the money, they feed the child, you don’t have to fear.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): When there was not yet food at the schools… I used to give coffee and bread.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). When there wasn’t one… I used to send him to his stepmother’s. ‘Tell your stepmother to give you something.’ I used to send him to the other wife, ‘Tell her to give you something.’ She would give him a cookie and turn her back. Sometimes, he gets food [from the school canteen] and he says, ‘mama, give me a container so I can show you how good the food is.’

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). … I remember a long time ago when I was at a school in Port-au-Prince called Damoklès. They used to give us food, but it was not cooked. We didn’t even make food. Adults didn’t have time to make food. You suffered when you got out of school. They didn’t give you money, long time ago they didn’t give children money when they went to school.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program) The parents are relieved when they know the children are going to find something to eat in the school. They don’t have to find something to give them in the morning. When the children come back in the afternoon, they know that the they have already found something to eat during the day. … They only have to plan for night …

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). Five children, I have five children in school.… I know they are going to eat. Now, I am going to focus on getting food for the afternoon meal.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). There are children who eat at school, when they get home they don’t need anything…

***

***

Public: No, no, no, most do not eat.

Unidentified Participant: No, most do not eat. Let me explain it to you. You see that there a lot of merchants that come here. Sometimes I sit in the office and children come to me and that they have a stomachache. When they tell me their stomach is hurting, what’s wrong with them?

Another Unidentified Participant: Hunger, hunger.

Previous Unidentified Participant continues: Right away I send for something from the merchant. Sometimes when I pay, I pay at the end of the month. I can pay as much as 30 or 40 dola for the children because the children asked for it, I say, ‘give them a fried dough, a little stew….’ In this way, the canteen helps the children.

Other Unidentified Respondents: It’s helps them a lot.

Previous Unidentified Participant continues: It helps us in the administration too because a lot of the time I don’t have that problem anymore. Not the way it used to be. That’s why it helps us. But it’s not all the children who get fed in the morning.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): … Sometimes I’m in the office and I hear children say, ‘teacher, my stomach hurts.’ ‘Your stomach hurts? You didn’t eat this morning?’ ‘No.’ Or I send them to get some fried dough from the vendor while they wait for the food to cook. And when they don’t have any food, you look at how much I spend per month. The vendor, I must pay her for fried dough that I owe. Why? For the children. When the children come complaining, you can’t let them go like that….

#FEEDING NOW THAT THERE IS A CANTEEN

#MORNING

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). If it’s a school day, I get up early and I make something salty and give it to them.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Well, a little corn meal. I make a little spaghetti for them.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). I have only one little one. The other one is a big girl now. If they’re going to school in the morning they say, ‘Mama, give me a little spaghetti.’ A little spaghetti and she’s gone. Or some corn meal. Whatever I have, they’re not demanding.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). I don’t make food in the morning. My little girl has a bad habit. She doesn’t want to eat in the morning. Even when you would make food. Even when she was smaller. You get up to make food for her and she’s not going to eat it. She doesn’t like to eat early. I don’t get up and make food for her. I don’t get up early to make food. I give her whatever I have. Whatever I have, I give her. If I don’t have anything, she goes to her grandparent’s yard.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Public: We give them whatever we have, whatever we have. Like coffee and bread. Sometimes I make corn with spinach before they go to school.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Days ago, before the hurricane, we would wake up in the morning and give the children a small cup of tea before they go to school. We would boil plantains with a little sauce of dry fish. And then we made juice for him. Sometimes, as parents, we may wake up late you do not have enough time to make food. But now, whether you wake up early or not, or whether you do not have anything or not, you have the advantage that they will eat at school.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #10: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 5 children; 3 children in program). … in the morning, I personally have two children. I must make some bread and coffee for them because they’re small. They can’t wait for the cooked food. And I have a young daughter too. She’s already told me that she won’t go to school if she hasn’t eaten. That’s right, she won’t go. She’s assured me that she won’t go.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Like, in the morning, I prepare coffee and bread. I don’t have time to cook food.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Sometimes in the mornings I make food. Sometimes I don’t have it and I send them without it.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): When they go to school, if I have something I cook food for them. If I don’t have anything then I give them coffee with bread, or I can give them 10 Goud to go with.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): Me, when I have it I cook something for them. When I don’t have it, I send them to school without it.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Is it necessary that children eat something first thing in the morning every day?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers,: Public: Yes!

Socio-Dig: Why?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers,: Public: For their chest, and so that the worms won’t burn them.

**

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Myself, if it’s not coffee with bread that I give them, then I make a macaroni in the morning and give it to them. But because of the change in time, school starts too early. Now I give them coffee and bread. I don’t let them leave without eating something.

Socio-Dig: You make something every morning?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Yes.

Socio-Dig: All week?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Yes, every morning I make something.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Ahh, me, in the morning I always try to make coffee. When I don’t make it, I give them 10 Goud.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Every school day [I feed them]. But since the canteen is here, we make the food and they do not want it. If you have a 10 Goud you give it to them. For the canteen, you just give 10 dollars, 20 dollars [per month]. When I’m late, I do not make anything for him. You give the child 10 Goud to buy cookies.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). … Even if the parents haven’t fed the child, when he comes to school, he goes and takes a little fried dough from Madam Apol, and he eats it.

***

NOTE Contradiction: It is clear that people feed and an error to think rural Haitians barely survived this long without the canteen. But the value of the canteen mean that people will play to it in the focus groups. As seen in the following passages. When asked if they feed in the morning

**

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Myself, if it’s not coffee with bread that I give them, then I make a macaroni in the morning and give it to them. But because of the change in time, school starts too early. Now I give them coffee and bread. I don’t let them leave without eating something.

Socio-Dig: You make something every morning?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Yes.

Socio-Dig: All week?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Yes, every morning I make something.

***

Despite saying the above, the same respondent later said the following:

***

Socio-Dig: If children eat at the house, do you think it’s so necessary for to feed them at school again. Couldn’t they replace that hot meal with something fresh? That means something else, because every day the child is eating at this house.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): You don’t hear what they’re telling you? There are times we don’t have anything to give them. We send them to school without anything.

***

Socio-Dig: What about in the morning, what do you like to eat in the morning?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Milk and cornflakes

Socio-Dig: Hmm

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Milk and cornflakes.

Socio-Dig: Milk and cornflakes, you prefer to eat in the morning?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig:  OK, what about fruit. What fruit you like to eat the most in the morning?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Mango

***

Socio-Dig: In the morning, what do you in the morning before heading to school?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I eat corn meal in the morning.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal and what else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal

Socio-Dig: What do you prefer to eat the most in the morning?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Mango

Socio-Dig: Mango, OK and you what is your favorite food before heading to school?

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): In the morning before going to school, I eat spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: You eat spaghetti?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: What else do you like most to eat in the morning?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I like to eat spaghetti, I like to eat rice.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. In the morning before you go to school, what do you eat?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade):  Spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1. Spaghetti, and after that, what else?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Rice.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Before I come to school I eat Aktive. Sometimes I don’t eat Aktive. I eat Spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: What is Aktive?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Aktive? A rice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): A rice that they call Little Panic.

Socio-Dig: A rice that’s called Little Panic? What’s it made of?

Children: It has all kinds of meat. Carrots.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): It has all kinds of milled meat. It comes in a closed bag.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Before I go to school, I eat rice with greens.  If I don’t eat rice with greens, I eat spaghetti.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): When I go to school, sometimes I eat spaghetti. If I don’t eat spaghetti, I eat rice.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Before I go to school, I eat spaghetti. If I don’t eat spaghetti, they give me corn meal with greens.

***

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): After that they ring the bell and I go to my house.

Socio-Dig: OK. You go to your house.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Me, my mother often gets up in the morning and she doesn’t have anything to give me.  I say, “You don’t have anything to give me, I am going.” When I get to school I can’t do anything.  I sit in class and we work.  Joking keeps me going. Now, when they let us go for recess, even though my mother didn’t give me anything, I eat.  I have friends, their mother gave them some money to buy fried dough, I go into the classroom and eat with them.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): There is a way that the canteen is very useful to me, and it helps my parents too.  Even that doesn’t make me afraid. When I get home from school, they may not even give me money, they may not even have food, because there are no days when we don’t get fed at school. That makes me not afraid. I just study.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): When they have the canteen, I eat when my mother isn’t there. When my mother comes home she makes the food I eat.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Me, sometimes I finish bathing, I put my uniform on, my mother and father don’t have anything to give me. I go to the kitchen at my house, get a little pebble of salt and put it under my tongue. After that I go to school. Because, because I take the little pebble of salt, that’s what helps me get through day until they feed us. As soon as they feed us, I’m good to go. After that I go home.

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Public [Some participants are talking together with the monitor] “Yes, we do not have cook for the children. Yes, if we give them bread and coffee they can wait for the food at school.

***

***

Socio-Dig: What do you feed your child in the morning?

Public: Laughter

Same Unidentified Participant: In the morning I might give them a little corn meal, early in the morning. If I have breadfruit, I give them a little breadfruit, early. And sometimes I a little bit of plantain too. Sometimes, especially if they are going to school.

Another Unidentified Participant: Sometimes you give them bread and coffee.

Socio-Dig: And you, what do you feed them?

Unidentified Participant: Ah, I feed them…. Well, I don’t give just one thing in the morning, no, things very.

Unidentified Participant: Yes, that’s right.

Socio-Dig: Give us a couple of examples of what you feed in the morning.

Unidentified Participant continues: He eats yam, plantain, breadfruit…

Socio-Dig: You boil them?

Unidentified Participant: Yes.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): Me, I don’t have any children.

Unidentified Participant: I usually give mine a variety of different foods. When it’s bread and coffee we have, we give them that.

Different Unidentified Participant: Sometimes it’s bread and egg that we feed them. They can take a little juice with them when they go. Sometimes it’s breadfruit they can boil. They boil it and eat it.

Earlier Unidentified Participant: They boiled it and eat it and they take a little fish with them and go to school. It varies.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Well, we do the same, we give them yams because where I live there is a time of year when we have a lot of yams. We give them sweet potatoes. We give them malanga and manioc and every now and then we give them spaghetti, a little corn meal, those are the types of things we make.

Unidentified Participant: That we give in the morning.

Socio-Dig: You always give them those foods before school?

Public: Yes, before they go to school.

Socio-Dig: So, your children, obligatorily eat something before they go to school?

Public: Yes, before they go to school.

Socio-Dig: Do you think that all the children in school eat something before they come to school?

#FEEDING IN THE AFTERNOON

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): If you don’t leave something for them, you must make an effort no matter what! As soon as they get home, they’re headed straight to the table. If they don’t find anything, ‘Mama, I’m dying here right now!’ You do whatever you can. You gotta have something for them no matter what.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): … he enters school at 7:45 and gets out a 1:00… Regardless of whether I’ve already given him something, he can’t wait until 1:00 when school lets out and he gets home.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). … When they don’t feed them at school, they’re killing me. They’re really killing me because when they come home from school, I ask God to forgive me because if they have hunger pains it just makes me ill.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). … Sometimes when she comes home she knows that I will have something for her. But when she comes she doesn’t find anything.…

***

Socio-Dig: OK. And you, what food do you favor most? Ahh don’t tell me! I know already … home cooked food. You don’t like the school food? OK. In the afternoon, after school, when you get home, what does your mother leave for you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): She will leave rice, cooked food. Once we remove the uniform we can sit to eat and then after we can sit and study.

Socio-Dig: What type of food do they usually leave for you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): At times, rice.

Socio-Dig: Rice.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): At times corn meal.

Socio-Dig: OK and you…?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): At times rice and other times corn meal

Socio-Dig: Same thing for all of you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: And you what type of food they leave for you after school?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times, they will leave me rice with meat for me [laugh] … with bread and eggs.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): … When my mother comes home she makes the food I eat.

Socio-Dig: She makes food for you. OK.

***

Socio-Dig: It’s you who produces it? OK. When you get home from school, do you always find food waiting for you?

Children: Yes, yes, yes.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): We find food already prepared when we get home from school.

Socio-Dig: Every day?

Children: Yes, there are sometimes though that we don’t find anything.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): There are times that we get there, we tell our mothers that we are hungry.  And also, there is food that’s just been prepared. We take off our school uniforms, and after we eat, we bath. When we’re down bathing we study on the porch. In the morning we go over our lessons again. We get to school, and they make us recite them. Finished.

Socio-Dig: OK, that means that there are times that it’s you who must make food when you get home? Number 7.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  There are times that I also make food. But, whether I eat at school, I don’t care. Me, I’m the type of person, all the time I don’t know my lessons, I can’t put a taste of anything in my mouth.  It’s when I’m finished with my lessons that I eat. Everyone at my house knows how I am. If you see me lying down and studying, no one calls me because all the time I don’t know my lesson no one is going to see my eyes on anything else.  As soon as I know my lesson, I eat.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you number 4?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  I don’t have anything to say, no.

Socio-Dig: You don’t have anything to say?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No.

Socio-Dig:  And you number 3?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  Me, as soon as I get home I always find food waiting for me. Because my mother, she sells cooked food. Even if I don’t find anything at the house, I just go to where my mother is, and I say, « Mama, I’m hungry! » She takes food out of the cauldron for me.

#GIVING MONEY TO THE CHILDREN TO BUY FOOD

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). The children are already spoiled. You’ve got to give them 5 Gourd no matter what.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): … if you give them 10 Gourd, so that when they finally get out of school [at recreation] they can eat something… That’s what I like a lot. Because… they feed them already. School gets out at 1:00 but they’ve already eaten. What’s more is that you give them 10 Goud so they can eat something to hold them until the canteen has finished cooking food. After that, I don’t see any problems with the canteen. Well, I’m happy because it’s not all the time that I have money to give them when they go to school.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Sometimes I make soup for them. I have some who don’t need anything. They say give them 5 Goud and when they get to school they’ll eat. They don’t stay home and eat anything.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). Mine, mine aren’t little children. I could get up in the morning and they say, ‘you don’t have to do anything for me. You can give me 10 Goud, 15 Goud, whatever you have. We’re going to see if they have food. If they have food we’ll eat whatever it is.’

***

Socio-Dig: OK, only in the morning, your parents always give you money for school?

Children: Yes

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): When she does not have money, when she does not have money, we don’t get any. When she does, I get it.

Socio-Dig: How much money they usually give you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At one time, she will give me 10 or 15 goud (.10 to 16 cents)

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): When she does not have money, when she does not have money, we don’t get any. When she does, I get it.

Socio-Dig: How much money they usually give you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At one time, she will give me 10 or 15 goud (.10 to 16 cents)

Socio-Dig: OK what do you do with all that money?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): If she gives me 15 goud, I will pay for food for 10 goud and with the remaining 5 goud I will buy lollipopst.

***

Socio-Dig: Any type of cookies. And you when you receive money, what do you do with it. How much money do you usually receive?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They sometimes give 10 goud (.10 cents). I pay 5 goud to buy fried dough to eat.

***

Socio-Dig: … OK. In the morning when you come to school, do your parents give you money?

Children: Yesss.

Socio-Dig: OK, let’s begin with you. How much money do they give you?  And what do you do with the money?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Sometimes she gives me 10 goud, she gives me 15 goud. Before I come to school they fry dough. I take the fried dough. Before recreation I go and get some more fried dough.

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Sometimes I come to school with 25 goud. When you she doesn’t’ have anything, the smallest she gives me is 10 goud….

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Before I come to school, if it’s a moment when my mother has money, she gives me 20 goud

#BUYING FOOD AT SCHOOL

Socio-Dig: OK, only in the morning, your parents always give you money for school?

Children:Yes

Socio-Dig: What do you do with that money?

Children: At times we pay for other food with it.

Socio-Dig: Hum, what do you do with it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade):  At times I would pay for food with it. At times, we eat fried dough.

Socio-Dig: Fried dough?

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times I pay for food.  I buy candies or fried dough with it.

***

Socio-Dig: And you what do you do with your money?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): At times, I pay for food with it and at times I eat candy with it.

***

Socio-Dig: And when they give you money to go to school what do you do with the money?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I use it to buy food.

Socio-Dig: To buy food?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

***

Socio-Dig: OK what do you do with all that money?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): If she gives me 15 goud, I will pay for food for 10 goud and with the remaining 5 goud I will buy lollipops.

Socio-Dig: You buy candy, besides the lollipops.  What else you like to buy with the money?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Cookies

Socio-Dig: What type of cookies?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Any type of cookies.

Socio-Dig: Any type of cookies. And you when you receive money, what do you do with it. How much money do you usually receive?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They sometimes give 10 goud (.10 cents). I pay 5 goud to buy fried dough to eat.

***

Socio-Dig: Salt-food, OK. In the morning when you come to school, do your parents give you money?

Children: Yesss.

Socio-Dig: OK, let’s begin with you. How much money do they give you?  And what do you do with the money?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Sometimes she gives me 10 goud, she gives me 15 goud. Before I come to school they fry dough. I take the fried dough. Before recreation I go and get some more fried dough.

Socio-Dig: OK. In the morning you eat some fried dough. How much does fried dough cost?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  They give you 2 for 1 dola (1 Haitian dola= 5 goud)

Socio-Dig: 2 for 1 dola, OK, and you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Sometimes I come to school with 25 goud

[5 minute]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): When you she doesn’t’ have anything, the smallest she gives me is 10 goud. And also, when I come to school, I get there, I take a little fried dough before I put my bookbag inside the classroom. After recreation, I do the same thing again [eat fried dough].

Socio-Dig:  You do the same thing also?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): When she doesn’t have more, she gives me 10 goud. Eh, in the morning I buy two pieces of fried dough for 1 dola (5 goud). At recreation I buy for 5 goud again.

Socio-Dig: For 5 goud again.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): When they let us out of school they give us food.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): You mean before they let you out of school?

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Before I come to school, if it’s a moment when my mother has money, she gives me 20 goud. Before I enter into the classroom I buy 10 goud of fried dough. After recreation I can’t eat fried dough again, I buy Salix crackers

Socio-Dig: Salix cookies.  You’re speaking to us?  Speak louder, you’re not shy. Speak louder. You can speak louder.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): When I go in, I buy 5 goud of fried dough in the morning. At recreation I buy for 5 goud again.

***

Socio-Dig: OK, what type of cookies/crackers do you eat most?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Salt-crackers.

Socio-Dig: Salt-crackers, which brand?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Guarina

Socio-Dig: Guarina, OK.  But isn’t there a type of sweet crackers that you buy?

Children: Sometimes we buy Anika.  We buy fried dough. Or some Salix crackers..

Socio-Dig: OK, I hear you telling me that you buy crackers or cookies, you buy fried dough. But what do you drink?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): We buy a juice or a cola. When they ring the bell for us to go inside, we go so we can work.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): There are those who don’t have much money. There is a juice that sells for 5 goud. We buy one of those little juices.

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade):  …. At times, we eat fried dough.

Socio-Dig: Fried dough?

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times I pay for food.  I buy candies or fried dough with it.

***

Socio-Dig: And you what do you do with your money?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): At times, I pay for food with it and at times I eat candy with it.

Socio-Dig: You eat candy?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: What type of candy do you like to eat?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Salty cookies/cookies

***

Socio-Dig: Salty cookies. Do you like to eat cookies too?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: What type of cookies you like?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Cookies Anika

Socio-Dig: Anika?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: OK, you like cookies or you prefer fried dough?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Fried dough

***

Socio-Dig: Do you purchase cookies at school?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: What type of cookies do you buy?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Salix

Socio-Dig: Salix is your favorite?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes, and lollipops.

***

#NEGATIVE IMPACT OF FEEDING

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). When they come home from school, you can boil an egg, you can give the child a banana, it’s good for them. It’s truly good for their insides. But you can’t do that. When children get here to the school, it’s 4 pieces of fried dough for 10 Goud. After that he finds good stew to drink. The child sees you with a bunch of eggs, but you must eat them. [She is complaining that because the child gets too much to eat at school and will not eat what she gives him. Also note that much of this food is not so good for the child, bringing up another issue, i.e. the quality of alternative foods such as candy and cheap fried foods].

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Yes, every day. They want to go, they’re interested. But that one doesn’t want to learn anything. I don’t know if it’s because he’s thinking about the food.

#HOW THE FEEDING PROGRAM FUNCTIONS

#TIME OF FEEDING

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees, Public: At 10 o’clock. 10:30.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. When do you feel most hungry during the day? Number 3, are you saying something? When do you feel the hungriest, morning, noon or night?  When do you feel most hungry?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): In the morning I feel hungry.

Socio-Dig: In the morning. Hmm, you when do you feel most hungry?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): When they give me food in the morning?

Socio-Dig: When you get food in the morning?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): In the morning

Socio-Dig: In the morning OK. Do you like the time that the meal is given at school?  When they give the meal, would you prefer it earlier or later?

Children: Earlier

Socio-Dig: Earlier?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: Why earlier?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Because when they do not cook at home, so we would eat earlier?

Socio-Dig: Even though they serve the meal earlier, around the same time, would you still feel hungry?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: When you feel hungry again, what would you do?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Nothing

Socio-Dig: Hey?

Children: Nothing

Socio-Dig: You would not do anything?

Children: No

Socio-Dig: Would you like to get the meal earlier?

Children: Yes

***

Socio-Dig: What time during the day do you feel most hungry?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  About 1 o’clock.

Socio-Dig: About 1 o’clock is when you most feel hungry? That’s when you have school or when you do not have school?

Children: Not when we have school.  School always let’s out about noon. At 1 o’clock there is no school.

Socio-Dig: There’s no school?

Children: 1 o’clock in the afternoon is when we leave.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): There are times that my parents don’t have anything to give us. I just get up…I just get up and go anyway [laughs]

Socio-Dig: Let him speak.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  I can get up at times like that and go the whole day without eating. I can even end up going to bed like that. I’m tough.

Socio-Dig: Really?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK, but for example, what time during the day do you feel the hungriest?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Around noon.

Socio-Dig: Around noon?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you number 5?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Me, I feel hungry around noon. I’m already in school and I don’t yet know the thing. But around 1 or 2 o’clock I start feeling hungry. I tell my mother that I’m hungry. She says. “oh, well, you ate at school. I don’t have anything to give you. Now you’ve come to pester me.”  I just put up with it, go sit on the porch and study.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): When I don’t have school on Saturday and I’m washing clothes, I get to feeling hungry around 4 o’clock. I go play football. When I’m done playing football….

[35 minutes]

Socio-Dig: You play football too?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you number 1. At what time during the day do you feel that you’re the hungriest?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade):  At 2 o’clock.

#SCHOOL FEEDING PREFERRED FOODS

Socio-Dig: OK, of all these meals, which one do you prefer the most and which one do you like the least.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Rice with pureed beans.

Socio-Dig: You like the most?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Do you like it? Does it taste good?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: Does the food taste good?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Tastes good?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: You like it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes [laugh]

Socio-Dig: You can tell me if you really don’t like it, you will not be in trouble.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): At times, I give it away. Other times I sell it.

Socio-Dig: Sell? You sell the food to other kids [laugh]. How much do you sell it for?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): For 5 goud.

Socio-Dig: For 5 goud.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Why do you sell it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Because I will not eat it.

Socio-Dig: You will not eat it? There are several children that beans do not go well with, they don’t eat the black beans.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t eat black beans. They gives me heart burn.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I usually eat mine, but at times I would sell it as well.

Socio-Dig: You sell it too?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: What type of food you sell the most?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Rice and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like them?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No.

***

Socio-Dig: OK, now if you had a choice of other food to give you in the school?  Each one of you will tell me 3 foods you would prefer to be served?

Socio-Dig:  Number 3

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They should give rice.

Socio-Dig: No, you already have rice. It is food you don’t have now.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal. What else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They can give cracked wheat.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Dumplings

Socio-Dig: There are no dumplings?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): There are no dumplings.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: They don’t give you dumplings. The stew has no dumplings?

Children: No

Socio-Dig: What does the stew have in it?

Children: Sweet potato, manioc, yam

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times they put breadfruit.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Breadfruit.

Socio-Dig: OK and you what would you like to be added? What other food you like you would you like to be added?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Manioc.

Socio-Dig: Manioc?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: Ummh, Spaghetti.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Plantain.

Socio-Dig: Plantain, there is sweet plantain or, what type of plantain?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Plantain.

Socio-Dig: Plantain ummmh

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Malanga.

Socio-Dig: Malanga OK. To add to the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: And you number 1, what food would you like to be added… would you like any other food to be added to what you get now?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Plantains.

Socio-Dig: Ummh, how would you like the plantains to be prepared, boiled?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No, fried.

Socio-Dig: Fried plantain.  What else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): With milk.

Socio-Dig: With milk. And what else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): With bread and peanut butter.

Socio-Dig: Bread and peanut butter?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

***

Socio-Dig: What food would you like to take off the menu?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They can take off stew.

Socio-Dig: They can take away the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig:  You don’t like the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t like it

Socio-Dig: If they were to add dumplings to the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): We will take the dumplings.

Socio-Dig: You would take the dumplings?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. It is the lack of dumplings that troubles them.

Socio-Dig: If the dumplings are added, would not have any objection to the stew.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): No

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Personally, they can leave the stew on the menu.

Socio-Dig: Oh?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade):  Yes, with sweet potatoes.

Socio-Dig: With Sweet potatoes.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Sweet potatoes.

***

***

Socio-Dig: Which one do you like the least?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t like the stew.

Socio-Dig: Why, why don’t you like the stew, do you know? [it has too many good stuffs in it] [laugh]

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I like rice and vegetables, rice and bean sauce. I don’t like stew. I like rice with mushed vegetables, rice and pureed beans, I don’t like the stew.

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No reason.

Socio-Dig: No reason?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I prefer rice, and I like the stew with rice and pureed beans and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: Vegetables?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like….

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Rice

Socio-Dig: You don’t like the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): That’s what I like the most.

Socio-Dig: The stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Really?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: OK. What do you like the most in the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I like the plantains

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade):  I like it, I like it what is in it, like the dumplings. I like them.

Socio-Dig: Dumplings. OK.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I like manioc and sweet potatoes.

***

Socio-Dig: OK.  And out of all that food, what do you like the most?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  Me, the food I like the most….

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Bean sauce I don’t really like. Nor stew. The food that I most like that they give is rice and beans with mushed vegetable.

Socio-Dig: OK. Why don’t you like bean sauce?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Sometimes it doesn’t digest well.

Socio-Dig: Beans, when you eat bean sauce at your house, it doesn’t digest well there too?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No, all beans.

Socio-Dig: Beans that are cooked at school, or even beans that are cooked at your house?

Children: Same thing…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Even beans cooked at my house.

Socio-Dig: They don’t sit well with you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No.

Socio-Dig: And you, what food do you most like?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  I most like… I don’t really like bouyon.  But rice and bean sauce and rice and beans with mushed vegetables I like.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  Only mushed vegetable I don’t like so much.

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like mushed vegetables? What’s wrong with them?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Not mushed vegetables, it’s stew that I don’t really like

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like stew?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Stew, eh, it doesn’t sit so well with me…

Socio-Dig: It doesn’t sit so well with you, what’s it do to you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): It makes me vomit.

Socio-Dig: It makes you vomit. OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Me, when they make stew at my house, they don’t put any aside for me. They give me rice with bean sauce.

Socio-Dig: That means that it’s stew that you don’t like. It’s not stew at school that makes you sick. It’s that you don’t like stew at all.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): That’s right.

Socio-Dig: OK, and you, what food do you most like? And what food do you most not like?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t so much like rice with bean sauce because sometimes I drink bean sauce and it gives me acid.

[10 minutes]

Socio-Dig: It gives you acid when you drink it a school or in general?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): I can drink it at the house and it does the same think. It gives me acid.

Socio-Dig: It gives you acid?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. And what do you most like?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Ha, I most like rice and beans and beans and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: Rice and beans and mushed vegetables. OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  I most like white rice with mushed vegetables. I don’t really like bean sauce. Sometimes it makes me vomit.

Socio-Dig: It makes you vomit?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): That’s right

Socio-Dig: OK. It makes you vomit, OK. That happens even when you drink it at school?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  In general.

Socio-Dig: In general. OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): I most like rice and beans.

Socio-Dig: With mushed vegetables?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade):  With mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: What do you not like at all?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Stew

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): There’s one food I never eat at school.

Socio-Dig: What’s that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Only the stew.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like stew at all.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No, I don’t like it at all, at all. Even at home, I don’t eat it.

***

Socio-Dig: No. OK. (laughs) If there was a different food that they added to what they give you, what food would you want them to add?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  We would add cracked wheat.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal would be even better.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I don’t really like corn meal.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  Corn meal gives people strength.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I don’t really like cracked wheat. I would like it if it was corn meal with greens

Socio-Dig: Corn meal would be better?

[25 minutes]

Children: Yes, corn meal gives strength.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal with beans in it.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): The food that they should give is cracked wheat, that’s my food.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Each person is going to tell me something that they would agree to add.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): They could add corn meal with beans, or like corn meal with beans and fish sauce. What I like most is corn meal, bean sauce and fish sauce.

Socio-Dig: That’s what you like most? corn meal, bean sauce and fish sauce?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Me, myself, I most like corn meal with beans and especially with fish sauce, because they make that at my home. My father is a fisherman.  When he comes from Bomon, he brings fish to us. We like to eat that a lot.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): I most like corn meal with beans and fish sauce. Because when I eat it, it doesn’t do anything bad to me.

Socio-Dig: It doesn’t’ do anything to you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): No.

Socio-Dig: OK, you would not agree to add millet too, if they added millet?

Children: Yes, they can add millet.  They could add it because that’s food of our country.

Socio-Dig: And you, what food would you add?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade):  I would say for them to add corn meal and bean sauce.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal with bean sauce, OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  I don’t like corn meal.  I would prefer they add cracked wheat or millet.

Socio-Dig: [Laughs]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): I don’t like cracked wheat. I like rice with meat, what they call Little Panic. And I would most like to see them add corn meal with greens.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal with greens.  OK. Now let’s talk about juice and milk.  I know that they don’t give you juice and milk in school.  Between those two things, which would you most agree that they give you.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Juice.

Socio-Dig: Juice?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  Juice is good. In a little bottle it would be better.

Socio-Dig: O, juice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Something with gas, something with gas isn’t good for us.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Juice is good, yes.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  It’s natural juice, carrot.…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Well, it’s not natural juice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): You don’t know what kind of juice?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): It’s not a natural juice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Pineapple juice, carrot, papaya.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): It’s got gas in it. When you open it, you hear it go pssss.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Well, that one doesn’t make any noise.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Try shaking before you open it.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, what thing shakes like that.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): The natural juice that I like is Tampico, lime, like pineapple.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): I like the natural juice most, but when you don’t have a lot of money, get them to buy you a tasty juice or a Tampico to drink.

Socio-Dig: Do they sell cassava with peanut butter around here?

Children: Yes, not so much

Socio-Dig: Not so much. You don’t like cassava with peanut butter?

Children: Yes, a lot.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Bobori.

Socio-Dig: Bobori?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Bobori is when they put sugar in it.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I like it most.

Socio-Dig: Cassava, peanut butter, and banana, you guys don’t like those?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Banana, I love bananas.

Socio-Dig: OK, if they said that they were going to give you a hot meal and the next day they were going to give you a cassava, peanut butter, and banana, would you agree with that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Mmm. No, O! Because banana, cassava, and peanut butter…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): If today they give us a hot meal and tomorrow they give us….

Socio-Dig: A cold meal.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Cassava with peanut butter. And then the next day they gave you a hot meal that would be good.

Socio-Dig:  It would be good?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): That wouldn’t be a problem.

Socio-Dig: It wouldn’t be a problem for you number 1?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): No.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): It would not be problem, no.

Socio-Dig: A little while ago you said that it would be a problem. (laughs). And you number 3, would you like that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes, because we eat the food from our country all the time. That’s a food that just arrived. It wouldn’t be a problem for us.

Socio-Dig: OK. What work do you do at home? Do you help your family make gardens?  You said your father is a fisherman. Do you ever fish with him?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, because where he goes so far way, I can’t be involved.

Socio-Dig: You can’t go?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No.

Socio-Dig: OK, what do you do at home?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): When I’m at home…

***

#SCHOOL VS HOME COOKED FOOD

Socio-Dig: What type of food do you like the most, the school food or the food at home?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Home cooked food.

Socio-Dig: Why? [Silence…] What type of food you prefer to eat, home food or at the school food?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I like both.

Socio-Dig: You like both?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

***

Socio-Dig: Because it’s us who produce it, OK. What do you most like to eat, canteen food or food that is cooked at home.

Children: Both, both food that is cooked in the canteen, and food that’s cooked at home.  We eat both.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  Canteen food has something we like more because in the morning when our parents don’t have money to give us, we go there, we get sustenance that can kill a worm for us.  But homecooked food, it’s only when we leave school at noon that we eat it. [Bird is singing loudly]. If we don’t get it in the morning before we go.

Socio-Dig: OK. Canteen food is tasty?

Children: Yess.

Socio-Dig: All the food is good every day?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): There’s one food I never eat at school.

Socio-Dig: What’s that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Only the stew.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like stew at all.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No, I don’t like it at all, at all. Even at home, I don’t eat it.

#PROCESS OF MAKING THE MEAL AND TIME IT TAKES

***

Socio-Dig: Thank you very much. Cooks, how much time does it take you to prepare a meal?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #1: (female; 39 years of age; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; 2 children in the school feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). Me, I’m out of my house at 6:30. You know that now the time changes?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #1: (female; 39 years of age; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; 2 children in the school feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). As soon as I get there [at the school], I light the fire. And I put the beans on the fire. I wait for the other woman to come. And I wash my cooking pot. Put my beans on the fire. Now, when she gets there she’s going to wash all the vessels again [that were washed the day before].

Socio-Dig: Yes.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #1: (female; 39 years of age; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; 2 children in the school feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). Now me, I am in the kitchen, the beans are on the fire. She’s finished washing the vessels. Now, after that, she comes and joins me. If it’s vegetable mush we’re making we both work together. We put on our aprons, and we make the food. When we finish making food it’s 10:00, 10:30, National time.

#CONSISTENCY OF PROGRAM AND DAILY FEEDING

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Do the children get fed every day?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Yes, they eat every day.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. In your opinion, did the canteen function well last year? Were there days that they did not feed? Did anything happen that they did not get fed?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). All the children got fed. It always worked well last year, just like this year.

Socio-Dig: That means that the children always got fed every day.?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). The children got fed every day.

***

Socio-Dig: Two years. You always have food?

Public: Yes, yes, yes we always find food.

Socio-Dig: Ok. That means that every day the children go to school, five days per week, they get fed, cooked food?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Yes, every day.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Does the food always come on time? Is there always food?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Public: Yes, there is always food. There is always food that lacks salt, we lack beans, oil.

***

Socio-Dig: In this sense, we can see the program is functioning well because the schools always feed the children?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet), Public: Yes, it is properly functioning.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). Sometimes the cooking oil is finished. I’ve already told them it’s finished. And when they bring more we’ve already bought some.

***

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like stew?  Umm, you don’t know. (laughs).  Is it every day that they feed you?

Children: Yes!

Socio-Dig: At what time do they give you food?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Sometimes they feed us at 11 o’clock.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Sometimes they feed us at 10 o’clock. When it’s prepared early, they give it to us.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  When it’s not prepared early, they feed us at 11 o’clock.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Or even at noon.

Socio-Dig: OK. Are there days that they don’t feed at all?

Children:  No, everyday.

Socio-Dig: They feed everyday?

Children:  Even when we have exams, they still have food.

***

Well, the one thing is that food at school isn’t made very early.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): But we don’t die because of that.

***

#FOOD VARIETY

Socio-Dig: Each day, what kind of food do they get?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). They get rice and bean sauce. Rice and beans with vegetables. Great thing!

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). On Wednesday, they feed stew. And like tomorrow, Monday, they will feed rice and bean sauce. If they have vegetables, they make them vegetable mush, rice and bean sauce. Wednesday it’s stew.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). WFP sends it. They send rice, beans, oil. But local food is yam, sweet potatoes, carrots, cabbage, egg plant, militon.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): They give them rice. In ZONE_2 they give them rice. And only on Wednesday do they give stew. Like when it’s time for stew, they give sweet potatoes, yam, they buy things like that. But it’s rice that comes most often.

Socio-Dig: Ok. You all, it’s the same?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Yes. It’s the same.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Let’s say there are 5 days in a week. What do they give the cooks to make? Number 1.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #1: (female; 39 years of age; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; 2 children in the school feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). Monday, rice, stew.

Socio-Dig: One after the other. Number 6?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). Monday, rice and bean sauce. Tuesday, sometimes we have rice and beans with vegetable sauce. It’s like that. If on one Tuesday I make vegetable sauce, the other Tuesday, when they bring the food, I make rice, bean sauce, and vegetable sauce. Wednesday, we make stew. Thursday, we make white rice and bean sauce again.

Socio-Dig: Friday, what do you make on Friday?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). On Fridays, we always make rice and bean sauce. Because when you look at the kids, they’re in school. Now to see you’re giving them rice they way we do, mostly Haitian rice and pureed beans.

***

Socio-Dig: OK, in the school what do they give to eat?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Rice and pureed beans.

Socio-Dig: Everyday? Tell me during the week what food do you eat every day number 3. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday what do you eat?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Monday, I eat rice with pureed beans.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Tuesday, they give us mixed rice with mushed vegetables, Wednesday, they usually give us stew. Thursday, rice with pureed beans again and Friday they give us rice with mushed vegetables.

***

Socio-Dig: Now I’m going to ask some questions about the canteen food you eat at school.  What do they feed you each day?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): They usually give us…

Socio-Dig:  Let’s say, let’s begin….

Children:  Monday they feed us rice and bean sauce. Tuesday, they give us rice with beans and mushed vegetables. Wednesday, they give us white rice and stew.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  No, Wednesday they give us stew.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Wednesday is stew.

Children: Thursday, white rice, mushed vegetables and bean sauce.  Friday, rice and beans and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: OK. You said Monday…

Children: White rice, bean sauce, mushed vegetables.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Tuesday, they give us rice and beans with mushed vegetables. Wednesday, they give us stew. Thursday, they give us rice and bean sauce.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Rice and beans with bean sauce.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, white rice and bean sauce.

Socio-Dig: Rice, beans and mushed vegetables.

Children:  Friday, they give us rice and beans and mushed vegetables.

#SCHOOL FEEDING PREFERRED FOODS

Socio-Dig: OK, of all these meals, which one do you prefer the most and which one do you like the least.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Rice with pureed beans.

Socio-Dig: You like the most?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Do you like it? Does it taste good?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: Does the food taste good?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Tastes good?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: You like it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes [laugh]

Socio-Dig: You can tell me if you really don’t like it, you will not be in trouble.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): At times, I give it away. Other times I sell it.

Socio-Dig: Sell? You sell the food to other kids [laugh]. How much do you sell it for?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): For 5 goud.

Socio-Dig: For 5 goud.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Why do you sell it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Because I will not eat it.

Socio-Dig: You will not eat it? There are several children that beans do not go well with, they don’t eat the black beans.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t eat black beans. They gives me heart burn.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I usually eat mine, but at times I would sell it as well.

Socio-Dig: You sell it too?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: What type of food you sell the most?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Rice and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like them?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No.

***

Socio-Dig: OK, now if you had a choice of other food to give you in the school?  Each one of you will tell me 3 foods you would prefer to be served?

Socio-Dig:  Number 3

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They should give rice.

Socio-Dig: No, you already have rice. It is food you don’t have now.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal. What else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They can give cracked wheat.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Dumplings

Socio-Dig: There are no dumplings?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): There are no dumplings.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: They don’t give you dumplings. The stew has no dumplings?

Children: No

Socio-Dig: What does the stew have in it?

Children: Sweet potato, manioc, yam

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times they put breadfruit.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Breadfruit.

Socio-Dig: OK and you what would you like to be added? What other food you like you would you like to be added?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Manioc.

Socio-Dig: Manioc?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: Ummh, Spaghetti.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Plantain.

Socio-Dig: Plantain, there is sweet plantain or, what type of plantain?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Plantain.

Socio-Dig: Plantain ummmh

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Malanga.

Socio-Dig: Malanga OK. To add to the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: And you number 1, what food would you like to be added… would you like any other food to be added to what you get now?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Plantains.

Socio-Dig: Ummh, how would you like the plantains to be prepared, boiled?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No, fried.

Socio-Dig: Fried plantain.  What else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): With milk.

Socio-Dig: With milk. And what else?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): With bread and peanut butter.

Socio-Dig: Bread and peanut butter?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

***

Socio-Dig: What food would you like to take off the menu?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They can take off stew.

Socio-Dig: They can take away the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig:  You don’t like the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t like it

Socio-Dig: If they were to add dumplings to the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): We will take the dumplings.

Socio-Dig: You would take the dumplings?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. It is the lack of dumplings that troubles them.

Socio-Dig: If the dumplings are added, would not have any objection to the stew.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): No

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Personally, they can leave the stew on the menu.

Socio-Dig: Oh?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade):  Yes, with sweet potatoes.

Socio-Dig: With Sweet potatoes.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Sweet potatoes.

***

Socio-Dig: Which one do you like the least?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t like the stew.

Socio-Dig: Why, why don’t you like the stew, do you know? [it has too many good stuffs in it] [laugh]

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I like rice and vegetables, rice and bean sauce. I don’t like stew. I like rice with mushed vegetables, rice and pureed beans, I don’t like the stew.

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No reason.

Socio-Dig: No reason?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I prefer rice, and I like the stew with rice and pureed beans and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: Vegetables?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like….

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Rice

Socio-Dig: You don’t like the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): That’s what I like the most.

Socio-Dig: The stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Really?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: OK. What do you like the most in the stew?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I like the plantains

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade):  I like it, I like it what is in it, like the dumplings. I like them.

Socio-Dig: Dumplings. OK.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I like manioc and sweet potatoes.

***

Socio-Dig: OK.  And out of all that food, what do you like the most?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  Me, the food I like the most….

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Bean sauce I don’t really like. Nor stew. The food that I most like that they give is rice and beans with mushed vegetable.

Socio-Dig: OK. Why don’t you like bean sauce?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Sometimes it doesn’t digest well.

Socio-Dig: Beans, when you eat bean sauce at your house, it doesn’t digest well there too?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No, all beans.

Socio-Dig: Beans that are cooked at school, or even beans that are cooked at your house?

Children: Same thing…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Even beans cooked at my house.

Socio-Dig: They don’t sit well with you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No.

Socio-Dig: And you, what food do you most like?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  I most like… I don’t really like bouyon.  But rice and bean sauce and rice and beans with mushed vegetables I like.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  Only mushed vegetable I don’t like so much.

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like mushed vegetables? What’s wrong with them?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Not mushed vegetables, it’s stew that I don’t really like

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you like stew?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Stew, eh, it doesn’t sit so well with me…

Socio-Dig: It doesn’t sit so well with you, what’s it do to you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): It makes me vomit.

Socio-Dig: It makes you vomit. OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Me, when they make stew at my house, they don’t put any aside for me. They give me rice with bean sauce.

Socio-Dig: That means that it’s stew that you don’t like. It’s not stew at school that makes you sick. It’s that you don’t like stew at all.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): That’s right.

Socio-Dig: OK, and you, what food do you most like? And what food do you most not like?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): I don’t so much like rice with bean sauce because sometimes I drink bean sauce and it gives me acid.

[10 minutes]

Socio-Dig: It gives you acid when you drink it a school or in general?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): I can drink it at the house and it does the same think. It gives me acid.

Socio-Dig: It gives you acid?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. And what do you most like?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Ha, I most like rice and beans and beans and mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: Rice and beans and mushed vegetables. OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  I most like white rice with mushed vegetables. I don’t really like bean sauce. Sometimes it makes me vomit.

Socio-Dig: It makes you vomit?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): That’s right

Socio-Dig: OK. It makes you vomit, OK. That happens even when you drink it at school?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  In general.

Socio-Dig: In general. OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): I most like rice and beans.

Socio-Dig: With mushed vegetables?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade):  With mushed vegetables.

Socio-Dig: What do you not like at all?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Stew

***

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): There’s one food I never eat at school.

Socio-Dig: What’s that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Only the stew.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like stew at all.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No, I don’t like it at all, at all. Even at home, I don’t eat it.

***

Socio-Dig: No. OK. (laughs) If there was a different food that they added to what they give you, what food would you want them to add?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  We would add cracked wheat.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal would be even better.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I don’t really like corn meal.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  Corn meal gives people strength.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I don’t really like cracked wheat. I would like it if it was corn meal with greens

Socio-Dig: Corn meal would be better?

Children: Yes, corn meal gives strength.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Corn meal with beans in it.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): The food that they should give is cracked wheat, that’s my food.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Each person is going to tell me something that they would agree to add.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): They could add corn meal with beans, or like corn meal with beans and fish sauce. What I like most is corn meal, bean sauce and fish sauce.

Socio-Dig: That’s what you like most? corn meal, bean sauce and fish sauce?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Me, myself, I most like corn meal with beans and especially with fish sauce, because they make that at my home. My father is a fisherman.  When he comes from Bomon, he brings fish to us. We like to eat that a lot.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): I most like corn meal with beans and fish sauce. Because when I eat it, it doesn’t do anything bad to me.

Socio-Dig: It doesn’t’ do anything to you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): No.

Socio-Dig: OK, you would not agree to add millet too, if they added millet?

Children: Yes, they can add millet.  They could add it because that’s food of our country.

Socio-Dig: And you, what food would you add?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade):  I would say for them to add corn meal and bean sauce.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal with bean sauce, OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  I don’t like corn meal.  I would prefer they add cracked wheat or millet.

Socio-Dig: [Laughs]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): I don’t like cracked wheat. I like rice with meat, what they call Little Panic. And I would most like to see them add corn meal with greens.

Socio-Dig: Corn meal with greens.  OK. Now let’s talk about juice and milk.  I know that they don’t give you juice and milk in school.  Between those two things, which would you most agree that they give you.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Juice.

Socio-Dig: Juice?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  Juice is good. In a little bottle it would be better.

Socio-Dig: O, juice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Something with gas, something with gas isn’t good for us.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Juice is good, yes.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  It’s natural juice, carrot.…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Well, it’s not natural juice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): You don’t know what kind of juice?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): It’s not a natural juice.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Pineapple juice, carrot, papaya.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): It’s got gas in it. When you open it, you hear it go pssss.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Well, that one doesn’t make any noise.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Try shaking before you open it.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, what thing shakes like that.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): The natural juice that I like is Tampico, lime, like pineapple.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): I like the natural juice most, but when you don’t have a lot of money, get them to buy you a tasty juice or a Tampico to drink.

Socio-Dig: Do they sell cassava with peanut butter around here?

Children: Yes, not so much

Socio-Dig: Not so much. You don’t like cassava with peanut butter?

Children: Yes, a lot.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Bobori.

Socio-Dig: Bobori?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Bobori is when they put sugar in it.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I like it most.

Socio-Dig: Cassava, peanut butter, and banana, you guys don’t like those?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Banana, I love bananas.

Socio-Dig: OK, if they said that they were going to give you a hot meal and the next day they were going to give you a cassava, peanut butter, and banana, would you agree with that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Mmm. No, O! Because banana, cassava, and peanut butter…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): If today they give us a hot meal and tomorrow they give us….

Socio-Dig: A cold meal.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Cassava with peanut butter. And then the next day they gave you a hot meal that would be good.

Socio-Dig:  It would be good?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): That wouldn’t be a problem.

Socio-Dig: It wouldn’t be a problem for you number 1?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): No.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): It would not be problem, no.

Socio-Dig: A little while ago you said that it would be a problem. (laughs). And you number 3, would you like that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes, because we eat the food from our country all the time. That’s a food that just arrived. It wouldn’t be a problem for us.

Socio-Dig: OK. What work do you do at home? Do you help your family make gardens?  You said your father is a fisherman. Do you ever fish with him?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, because where he goes so far way, I can’t be involved.

Socio-Dig: You can’t go?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No.

Socio-Dig: OK, what do you do at home?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): When I’m at home…

#SCHOOL VS HOME COOKED FOOD

Socio-Dig: What type of food do you like the most, the school food or the food at home?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Home cooked food.

Socio-Dig: Why? [Silence…] What type of food you prefer to eat, home food or at the school food?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I like both.

Socio-Dig: You like both?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

***

Socio-Dig: Because it’s us who produce it, OK. What do you most like to eat, canteen food or food that is cooked at home.

Children: Both, both food that is cooked in the canteen, and food that’s cooked at home.  We eat both.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  Canteen food has something we like more because in the morning when our parents don’t have money to give us, we go there, we get sustenance that can kill a worm for us.  But homecooked food, it’s only when we leave school at noon that we eat it. [Bird is singing loudly]. If we don’t get it in the morning before we go.

Socio-Dig: OK. Canteen food is tasty?

Children: Yess.

Socio-Dig: All the food is good every day?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): There’s one food I never eat at school.

Socio-Dig: What’s that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Only the stew.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like stew at all.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No, I don’t like it at all, at all. Even at home, I don’t eat it.

#FEES

#AMOUNTS

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Now, here is how the school director does it. He makes you pay the whole year. He makes you pay 15 dollars [75 HTG] for the entire year.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). We give 50 Gourd…. Every month. Because around here there isn’t a lot of money.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children, Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Up top there [on the mountain], we give wood or charcoal…. Yes, we bring wood, we bring charcoal…. As soon as they’re out of it, we bring more. Three or four of us get together on it. We bring charcoal or wood. Because the director told us this. He called a meeting. We give it. And when we’re finished we bring more.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children, Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). In this school it’s 10 dollars per month [50 HTG].

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): No, it’s not a lot of money. For a complete week, 20 Gourd. If you can find 20 Gourd for the week. Me, I have 2 children. I must find 8 dollars [40 Goud] each week. I don’t do anything now. It’s my husband who works and he can’t find money every single day. There are times, the end of the month comes and I can’t find any money. Now, when you pay 20 Gourd each week, that’s 32 dollars per month. The month is 16 dollars [for each child]. Myself it’s 2 children I have. Hmm. It’s 32 dollars per month for me. You understand?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): When I pay for school, I pay everything at once, tuition, canteen, even the parties. I pay just once.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): … When they go at 8:00 and got out at 1:00, you gave 10 Goud [for two children]. And even you if you don’t have the money, they feed you, you don’t have to fear.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Myself and the one who gives the condiments. You see what I am telling you? So we contribute to buy them [the condiments] to cook for the children.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). But the child must be given 5 Goud. Or we do not know what WFP could do to help them, because they may not have 5 Goud.

***

#SCARCITY OF MONEY

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). It’s not that you can’t buy something and sell it. It’s the school. It’s not everyone who has money to give their children to buy something to eat at school.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). As soon as you’re dealing with the bank’s money, you can’t do anything. You’re working for nothing. It’s buy and sell. There are things you can’t afford to buy.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). I’m not hiding the fact that we don’t have a single cent. Since I’m still sleeping in the morning, my daughter says to me, ‘mommy, I’m leaving.” “Yes,” I tell her, “you can go. I’ll bring you 5 Goud during recreation.” I say that because I have hope. When in reality, I don’t have it. I know that at recreation she’ll be looking at what other people are eating. But as soon as 10:00 rolls around she’s going to get something to eat no matter what. Sometimes when she comes home she knows that I will have something for her. But when she comes, she doesn’t find anything.…

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Us parents could help the school with small necessities, do things for the children. Even if we’re selling it, even if we’re giving it. But it’s not easy right now because we have no money. Myself, I have some things I can sell. The school could buy them from me. But the school does not have any money. Sometimes you have a little money, you borrowed it from the office [from and institutional lender]. As soon as you’ve paid one or two months interest the money is gone. The reason is that trade doesn’t have any profit. You buy, like those cookies I see. When the lady sells them. It’s us two who sell cookies in the school yard. There is a type of cookie they call Casino. When you buy a big bag of cookies, they sell for 12 dollars [60 Goud]. If you don’t sell the small packages at 2 for 5 dollars, you won’t make anything. On the contrary, you will lose some of your capital. After that, the other cookies sell for 11 dollars. They have 12 small packs of cookies in them. [You sell them for 1 dollar each]. You make a single dollar. If you eat a pack of cookies yourself then you don’t make anything at all. If you have a child who eat two packs you don’t make anything at all. Your capital starts to disappear. But if you had a little money for you to sit down with, we could buy [to resell and] to help the school. But we can’t. Things are a little difficult for us. When you have a little money, sometimes you buy a sack of lollipops, you buy them at 43 dollars, you make 4 dollars. But in that 4 dollars, children are little animals that like to suck lollipops. The children tell you, ‘Mama, give me a lollipop.’ You give them one so that they will stop looking at what other people are eating. Now you have 3 dollars left. But there are children who ask their parents and there are children who do not ask. They watch, they take one, they fill their bodies with cookies. The money goes. Do you understand?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). …. I do some trading in the [school] yard. It’s not enough to give all my children what they need…

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): No, it’s not a lot of money. Like if you had some economic activity, you’re getting ahead, every now and then you have 50 Goud, or 20 Dollars. But you don’t have anything, you just sit and wait for fortune to give you something.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): But one thing, the people in the kitchen, it’s a problem for the teachers. There are times when the children don’t have 5 goud, there are those who don’t have 5 goud. There are those too who might have 5 goud, but they buy candy with it, they don’t understand. There are some too who don’t have 5 goud to pay for food. But the people in the kitchen, those people don’t earn any money. You understand? They don’t get paid. They don’t get paid for that. It’s a problem.

#UNDERSTANDING OF THE PURPOSE OF FEES

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). When you pay that little change, the money is to buy wood and charcoal [to cook the food] and coconut to put in the food. That little bit of money can’t cover the cost of the food.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Sometimes the food comes and there is no cooking oil. They have to buy oil. And it’s not food with bouillon cubes [magey] that we’re cooking. You have to season it with garlic, you have to put in some peppers. Eh, you have to give 50 Goud per month so they can do this…

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Five Goud is normal. The children should give it, because we use that money to buy condiments to make the food. We see this school, the school of Mr BLANK does not take money from children….

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program) And the food, we cannot cook it only with oil and salt given by WFP. We must put spices in it….

****

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): And what I say too is that they should take the money. They don’t send condiments with the food. They must buy them.

****

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees, Public: We pay a person. We pay to look for wood. To carry wood. Sometimes it’s a big piece of wood….

***

#PROBLEMS PAYING FEES

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). WFP provides food. Sometimes the children go to school. You as parents, you do not have a cent. Did they have the right to send the child back for the 5 Goud food fee and not allow the child to eat. That is what I see as a problem in the canteen right here. If the child goes to school and does not have the 5 Goud, they will send him back home. It is not every morning that you are going to have the money. Do they need to send the child back home for that?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). We may have a day where we do not even have 5 Goud to even buy a piece of bread. We can pay per month and when the month is over we do not have money to pay. To send the child back home, I think the child can stay at school. They don’t have to feed him, but do not make him lose the entire day of school.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). I helped out at SCHOOL_1. I spent 1 year and 4 months giving them services. I did not ask them for money. Now I’ve stop providing services. I spent 1 year and 4 months giving them my strength and energy. I used to pay every month but sometimes I do not have the 5 Goud. When I do not have the 5 Goud. I worry they are going to send the children home. That gives me a problem. When I do not have it, they are not supposed to send my children home.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): … there are times when you don’t have money. But you must let the children go [to school]. It hurts me that I can’t find the money. But I’m obligated. Like when the exam period arrives and the director came up with this strategy of not letting the children take their exams if you haven’t paid. Now I figure out a way to send 63 dollars for the two of them. There is a small balance that remains. I haven’t finished paying, no, seems I owe 25 Goud still. What makes it an issue is that you can’t earn it. But when you calculate it, it’s just a little money.….

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Ok so they put the canteen in the school, the canteen is good for me. But if I don’t give them a dollar every day, the children don’t eat. Well me… their father who is with me, it’s like he’s not really with me. It’s me who must fight, who has to strike a lick to get them food. When they don’t feed them at school, they’re killing me. They’re really killing me because when they come home from school, I ask God to forgive me because if they have hunger pains it just makes me ill.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): ….. even the issue of paying when a child is sick and doesn’t go to school we can live with. We just go with it. We are obliged to pay but we do not have no problem with the feeding program.

# COLLECTING FEES

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). In my school, I can say the school feeding program works good. Except for some problems we are facing. For example, I have problem where students do not want to participate in paying the fee for the food to be made.

And normally as you know, we cannot send the children back home for the fee for the school lunch. Although we applied all kind of strategies the children kept refusing to pay. And we realized some parents don’t have enough to pay for the children.

Normally, my school is in isolated area which is different from schools which are in town. There are some parents who have around 4 to 7 children in the school. When we ask for participation they cannot pay it. This is why when it comes to spending money to buy ingredients for the food to be cooked we are obligated to borrow money. For example, we are at the end of March, our cooks have not been getting anything since December. It has been 3 months. This is our biggest problem. Secondly, even to buy wood to cook is a problem. Do you understand? They used to give us briquettes, but we don’t get them anymore. That has caused a lot of problems. The biggest problem is there is no fund to move the program forward. But for the other points, we can say that everything is set up for the free lunch to function. But if the school feeding program continues like this, I guarantee you that we won’t be able to keep it. Because I will be borrowing all the time for the lunch to be cooked.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #10: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 5 children; 3 children in program). I went to the committee and I informed them that parents should pay, but that the school administration does not have a right to send children home. Because the food is for them [the children]. Parents must take responsibility and pay for the food [the fuel and cook]. It’s aid that they’re giving you. And you, you must pay your part. There are people who refuse to budge, they never do anything at all to help.

***

Socio-Dig: I don’t know if in the program they give you something that could replace them. Are the parents supposed to make a contribution to the canteen?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, the parents have a contribution they’re supposed to make. The contribution is for us to buy spices, to buy wood, and for us to find a little something to give the cooks so that they can wash their cloths.

Socio-Dig: It’s a monetary contribution?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): The contribution is 5 goud

Unidentified Participant: Five goud per day. Per day.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, per school day.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Me, for example, I have 94 children, in a day I might collect 100 goud. Another day I might get 150 goud. For example, when exams come, the children know that if they take their exams, then they will go, and I’ll never get my money. And after all that time they’ve been insisting that we have food for them. When exams come we always make sure that we make food so that we do not start hoping that we’ll find 5 goud at all [makes little sense, I can only infer that this is convoluted way of saying that they withhold grades for money. Perhaps the speaker realized in the middle of saying this that WFP doesn’t/wouldn’t approve]. And that’s the way things always are.

Socio-Dig: You always collect the 5 goud each Monday or Friday.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, yes, sometimes too we collect it, for example, we collect 5 goud each day. Because the children already know that they must give 25 goud per week. In that 25 goud, we might get 10 goud. And then, there are some students who don’t give anything at all, and they insist that all the children get fed.

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): …So, I feel like this is a problem we’re confronting and when I ask for more, I get less. When you have more children, it allows you to collect more and it can be useful, but when you have fewer children you have more problems. It comes to 15 dola, 75 dola that you collect from the children to do everything. And the food isn’t enough. You must buy flour, you must buy breadfruit to put in the food, you buy plantains top put in it. Especially Wednesday, it’s a veritable headache. That what makes us say that while there are many advantages to the canteen for the parents, the school and the children, and we would really like it to continue, there are many annoyances too that we could find solutions to resolve them because it could be better.

Unidentified Participant: It could be better.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): Every school has the same complaint. It’s about the money they ask from the parents to manage the kitchen and buy other things to make food. There are schools where they must buy charcoal. Some schools, they buy wood. Some schools must get their own wood or make their own charcoal to cook food. m. But all this is a Chinese fire drill. They’re all in school. The parents don’t want to pay, and we can’t send them home. Imagine for the month of June, I collected 425 goud for the canteen for the month. For me to pay the cook, to buy wood. And I made a contract with someone to bring me wood from all the way on the top of the mountain, from behind Sileg, because there is wood in town. For all the trips, 500 goud each month. 300 dola (1,500 goud) each month. The cook, we expect to give a little 750 goud per month. Well, that’s already 450 dola (2,500 goud) per month. Obligatory, because you can’t have someone work and not pay them. You can’t put them in the kitchen, she makes food and you don’t pay her. And there you go, you need to get 425 goud when your done to buy spices to put in the food because you can’t just put salt and oil in the food to give to the children. Cook rice and beans with oil and salt only? Well, BND doesn’t do anything there, it’s us, us schools. Therefore, you see the headaches that all the school directors have. All the time I’m complaining to BND about this, they could help us manage this. I don’t know. Now there’s this problem of erosion we battle. Because when you cut trees it’s the land you’re tearing open. … And secondly, we’re in a mess with people who would bring us wood. I remember one time they were trying to give us briquettes. Or, I don’t know, maybe…. If it were possible for them to give us briquettes because normally I don’t know where they found them, if they’re difficult to produce or to find them or what. They could find another source of energy to cook food. It’s not obligatory that it’s charcoal or wood. But the schools don’t have the means. They don’t have the means and if the parents can’t give money for us to make do, you can ask the director of the school there for him to to start giving you examples of how difficult it is to get money from the parents. A stove, a gas stove could make food. The children like food, we’re very happy. The consequence it has had is positive, it yields scholarly dividends, grades are up. When the children used to come to school, they’d sit there, sleeping. You don’t see that in school anymore. Because they find a little food, they eat. The parents, when the children get home from school, the parents know that the child has eaten, they don’t have to worry so much about finding something to feed them. When they get back home they only have to give them something at night, a little supper…. And when the children get home they can force them to study because they know their stomach isn’t empty. I think that all that is an advantage that the canteen has. It’s really a good thing, except with all the problems it has, if WFP could help us manage those problems we would really say, halleluiah (laughs), those of us who believe in God anyway, and Ayibobo (laughs) for those who believe in demons, things like that.

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you. Let’s hear from someone else.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): The way the director was saying, it’s all the schools that have difficult collecting money from the children. In my school I’m the one responsible for getting the money from the children. Well, what happens, every week we ask that they give 20 goud per week. First day, we might get 250 goud! After that we might get 500 goud from the children during the rest of the week. With that we must buy ingredients to cook the food. What happens is that I don’t make a contract with the cook. I can’t say here’s how much money I have for you. I give them something. But I can go three months without giving them a cent. I don’t get it, I don’t have it. Sometimes the little bit of money we get, I must buy spices. I tell the women, take it and do what you can. Sometimes the food lacks in taste because to manage it during the week, to make food for five days and with spices, the little bit of money just isn’t enough for you to buy spices for the entire week. That gives me problems with the women after they’ve worked for three months and I can’t give them a goud. Sometimes what we get can’t buy spices at all. Sometimes the children complain. Sometimes they say I pocketed the money they gave. The kids give me a rough way to go. And the women, sometimes they must wash their clothes. They ask for a little money to buy soap, I don’t have it. I don’t have money for soap. You can explain to them A + B, I don’t have it, but sometimes that bothers me so much I tell them if I had anything in my pocket I would give it to you. Especially sometimes they complain, ‘Director, if you had the means you could get me some wood …. I’m the one who must go into the forest and look for the wood. I can’t do two jobs at once.’ That really gives me problems. Well, if WFP could give us those briquettes again, like the other director already said, it would be very good for us.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): The issue of wood is the most difficult regarding the children paying. The children, the parents do not want to pay. When the director said that he gives people 1,500 goud for wood, we too had someone who we gave a contract to for wood. We asked 1,000 dola (5,000 goud) each month. 1,000 dola. With a lot of haggling he agreed on 600 dola (3,000 goud). He said he’d begin to supply us with wood and he really did start to give it to us. We paid the first month. We paid the second month. Third month nothing (laughs), What saved us, you know that around here when we have bad weather we get a lot of wood that falls to the ground. We pay people for that wood. They cut it up and leave it there. That’s the wood we got to make food. Well, we arrived in the month of June, month of May, the children didn’t pay, we don’t have wood. A parent I have that has not paid could never pay, ever. He told me he has problems top pay. I asked him and he gave me wood for the rest of the days. And I said to him that we had a couple more days in May and another week remaining in June, could he give us wood? He said yes, he’d give us wood. Well, really, he said to me it would not be a problem. I have a big log I carried to split up. He came and split it and after that he brought wood and gave it to us. That’s what saved us. But if BND could come and give us those briquettes again it would be better for us.

#STRATEGIES TO COLLECT FEES

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). If you’re in the school of director BLANK, any problem you have, if you owe money, you have to pay. All the time you have not paid, they’ll be asking you for it. They’ll ask for it. They’ll hold meetings. They’ll whip your children.

Socio-Dig: They’ll whip your children if you have not paid?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Yes, they’ll whip the children if it’s something they ask for and you have not given it. The children don’t know anything. They do not need to beat the children. But all the time they don’t get their money, they’ll whip the children. They hold meetings and call all the parents. They show us that they’re very angry about the money.

***

Regarding sending children home:

Socio-Dig: Are all the local schools like this or is it only the one?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet), Public: No, no. Not all.

Socio-Dig: Not all?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet), Public: No, no. Not all.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). They are not going to feed him. They send him back home.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #6: (Female; 35 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 3 children in program). It’s only the one school that does not send children back home

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Then other schools, if the child does not give the money, they send them back home.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). We may have a day where we do not even have 5 Goud to even buy a piece of bread. We can pay per month and when the month is over we do not have money to pay. To send the child back home, I think the child can stay at school. They don’t have to feed him, but do not make him lose the entire day of school.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): You see how we pay for the exams, the canteen asks that each person pays 20 Gourd per week. And there are times when it comes the moment to pay and you just don’t have 20 Goud. It’s like that. If the children have money they eat. If they don’t have money, they eat. They still go to school. Now, the number of days that a child didn’t pay, it’s in the exam week they calculate how many days …. and the amount of money you pay… They have a paper, the way you see that paper, a dossier for everyone. They write every day. You eat, they write you down. You eat and you pay, they write it down. You don’t pay, they write it down.

But there are times when you don’t have money. But you must let the children go [to school]. It hurts me that I can’t find the money. But I’m obligated. Like when the exam period arrives and the director came up with this strategy of not letting the children take their exams if you haven’ paid. Now I figure out a way to send 63 dollars for the two of them. There is a small balance that remains. I haven’t finished paying, no, seems I owe 25 Goud still….

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): I think that for what they do. Because me, when I don’t come up with the 20 Goud to give, and the children come to me and say, ‘Mama, I can’t take my exams because of the money’, I always find a way to send the money. Because you know that if someone is making food, working hard, that person must get something to wash their cloths.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): If you’ve been giving it, you cannot have money and they’ll give you credit. They’re heavy [the children], they don’t want to go without putting something in their mouth. They’re heavy.

***

Socio-Dig: …. Do they give you food every day?

Children: Somedays, somedays they don’t give us any.

Socio-Dig: Somedays they don’t give you any?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade):  When we don’t pay the fee.

Socio-Dig: When you donot pay the fee, they don’t give you food?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: OK. In what school do they do that, in the National school? Are you in the National school? When they don’t give you money they don’t give you food.

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: They send you back home or they don’t give you food?

Children: They don’t give us food

Socio-Dig: That means you are looking at the other kids eat, and you don’t get any food?

Children: Yes.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): The ones who have not paid the fee.

Socio-Dig: The ones who did not pay the fees, they do not get to eat?

Children: Yes

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Sometimes we step out.

Children: Sometimes they ask us to leave the room or sometimes they ask us to sit in anyway.

Socio-Dig: Sometimes they ask us to leave the room or sometimes they ask us to sit in anyway. Do they send you back home or beat you?

Children: Yes, they sometimes send us home and they sometimes beat us.

Socio-Dig: When you don’t have the fees?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They say that our parents give us the money and we squandered it on other food.

Socio-Dig: Ooo. Is it true your parents give you the money but you use it to buy other foods?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: No?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: OK. What do your mothers tell you when you tell them you were beaten? When you get home, do you tell your mothers?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I don’t say anything.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): We don’t say it.

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you tell?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): If we say that, we will receive another beating.  No, I said they don’t send me back home, they only make me sit.

Socio-Dig: OK. What if you tell your mother about it, she will beat you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Why would she beat you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): If I misbehave I will get a beating and when I tell her I will get another beating.

Socio-Dig: No, not for being naughty. For instance, if you don’t give the school the fee for food, do they beat you for that at the school?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: They don’t give you food?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes, the Grade 6th teacher would say he/she will send us back home.

Socio-Dig: OK. Do you have to pay the food fees daily?

Children: No, not every day. Sometimes when our parents do not have the fees… no not every day we have to pay.

Socio-Dig: How much money do you give every week, or every day?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade):  We pay 25 goud, 50 goud, 20 goud, 15 goud. They don’t accept 5 goud.

Socio-Dig: They don’t take 5 goud?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No.

Socio-Dig: Go ahead, what are you saying?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): They take 5 goud from me.

Socio-Dig: Number 3.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade):  Yes, they have taken 15 goud and I have given 25 goud.

Socio-Dig: For how many days the 25 goud?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): For the week.

Socio-Dig: For 5 days, one week. When you give 15 goud, it is for 3 days?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: That means they remember when you give. If you don’t pay, they will cook the food and you will not get any?

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times when we don’t pay, those who pay receive a bigger portion and those who don’t pay receive a smaller portion.

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Those who don’t give.

Socio-Dig: How do you see that?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): They don’t give all kids the same quantity.

Socio-Dig: They don’t give all kids the same quantity?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No, some get smaller portions, others bigger portions, some

get smaller portions.

Socio-Dig 1: Ah. Ok

Socio-Dig 2: And why do they do that?

Children: [laugh] Because they don’t pay

Socio-Dig: Do you like when that happens?

Children: No

Socio-Dig: What do the kids say when that happens?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): What?

Socio-Dig:: What do they say?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): [laughs] Nothing

Socio-Dig: They don’t say anything?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No, at times some kids would speak up to get more food and they will get a belt to quiet them down.

***

Socio-Dig: It’s money…  You know that every parent is supposed to give 5 goud to pay for the food.

Children: It’s 50 goud, yes, per month.

Socio-Dig: Fifty goud each month, OK. Even if it’s not you, are there children whose parents can’t pay the 50 goud per month?

Children: Yes.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): There are some no matter what.

Socio-Dig: There are some no matter what, OK.  When that happens, what happens with those children. They don’t get fed, they send them home?

Children: No, no. They still feed them.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Sometimes.

Socio-Dig: Ehen, number 4.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Sometimes they send them home.

Socio-Dig: They send them home, OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): When they never pay the canteen, ever.  There are mothers who never pay the canteen. They send them home to get the money to pay the canteen because it’s that money they need to collect to pay the teachers.

Socio-Dig: Hmm.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Eh, not for the professors, rather to make food.

Socio-Dig: To make food, OK. But do those children, for example, the mothers or family who do not pay the canteen, is it the case that when they make food they do not give them any?

Children: If the child is there, they always feed them.

Socio-Dig: They still feed them?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: OK, in your opinion, do you think it’s a good thing when parents do not pay the 50 goud and they send the children home?

Children: No, it’s not good.

Socio-Dig: It’ not good?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: Why not?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Because the money for the food is less, that’s what makes many parents not pay.

Socio-Dig: Wait, let me be clear with you. Do you think the parents should pay?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes, because we eat every day.

Socio-Dig: OK, you eat every day. When they send the children home, is that a good thing?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): It’s a bad thing. But they’re supposed to pay for the canteen.

Socio-Dig: You were not going to say anything number 4?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  When they send the children home it’s not good. When they’re going home, a vehicle could lose it brakes and hit them, all because they sent them home.

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): All because they sent the child home.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): When someone…. When, eh, they send children home and they’re in the street, they could ask the child why they sent him home. He could say it’s because of the canteen. And then without looking behind him, he can cross the street and a vehicle could hit him.

Socio-Dig: OK..

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): When they send a child home, that’s not good for him. A teacher could give a lesson, when exams come it will he hard on him.  I don’t really like when they send children home. There are times when parents really don’t have anything to give them. But then there are parents who do not pay when they could. That’s what I have to say.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you guys… You want to speak?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): When they send children home…

Socio-Dig: Hey, no kidding around!

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): When they send a child home, a motorcycle could hit him?

Socio-Dig: That’s happened, that they sent a child home and a motorcycle hit him?

Children:  In another school, that happened in another school.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):    But there was a time once, they sent me home. While I was on my way home, I took off my uniform. I went to play football by my house. I smashed my ear. If they had not send me home that would never have happened.

Socio-Dig: You hurt it? (laughs)

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Why did they send you home?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): I think it was because of the money for the canteen.

Socio-Dig: For the money for the canteen?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you, they’ve sent you home too before? Is there anyone here who they’ve sent home because of the money for the canteen?

[15 minutes]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Yes, they’ve sent me home. When they sent me home, when they sent me home… I went and told my mother they sent me home because of the canteen money. I said, “Mama, work it out so that you can give me the money to pay.” When my father came back he came and gave me 40 dola (200 goud) for the all the weeks I hadn’t paid.  He gave me 40 dola, and I went and paid it straight away.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Sometimes they send me home. Like they sent me home, as soon as my parents have money I asked my parents’ permission to take it. I didn’t miss a day etting it paid. As soon as the month begins, I pay.

Socio-Dig: You pay. OK.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Does it ever happen that they give you money to pay, you take that money, but you spend it on something else?

Children: I’m not involved in anything like that. That never happens with me, but it happens with other kids.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): A boy name Kenny who’s in the 4th grade.  His father gave him money to pay and he spent it.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): And they thought that he paid. When they asked him if he’d paid, he said yes.  And then when they went to the school administration to pay the next time, they said they hadn’t paid the last month.

Socio-Dig: They hadn’t come to pay that month?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): They hadn’t paid that month. Now you can…When they got home, they whipped him. After that they didn’t trust him with the money to pay again. Now the parents themselves go to pay.  They know that he’s in school, they’ll pay the canteen fees. He didn’t pay, he took the money.

Socio-Dig: OK. Let me ask if it ever happens that the school keeps your grades at the end of the year, they don’t give the grades because you owe money for the canteen.?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Yes.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): There are some kids that happens to. But me, that’s never happened to me.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): That happens, but it’s never happened to me.

Socio-Dig: That’s never happened to you?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): No.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): They can go give them the money to get their grade book, they hand you the payment book for the canteen, so you can see that you haven’t paid.

#LOCAL PROCUREMENT: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND CAPACITY

#PROVENANCE

Socio-Dig: Where does the food come from? Where do they buy it?

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). It’s a truck that I see brings it here. I don’t know where it comes from.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). I don’t know if the rice is local rice. Because they give imported rice more prestige than our rice. That’s what has finished with our production.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. That food that the children are eating, is it local food or food that WFP sends?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). WFP sends it. They send rice, beans, oil. But local food is yam, sweet potatoes, carrots, cabbage, eggplant, militon.

Socio-Dig: Is the rice that WFP gives Haitian?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Yes, it’s Haitian rice. In my opinion it’s rice from the Artibonite. Because it’s not rice from some other country [and it’s not from right here].

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: …For rice. I think that’s local no matter what, even if it’s not from right around here, it’s not from this region. It’s not from this commune, not this department, But I think that it’s from Haiti. The yams, I think they’re from this area. Except I don’t know if they buy them from the producers….

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Do you know that they buy local food to give to the children?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Public: Yes. They buy in the market. Right about now, they’re buying tubers. They drive up to Misòt and buy there. I’ve seen them in Misòt buying yams, sweet potatoes, cabbage, militon, eggplant. They bring them to the school right about now.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Like if it’s imported food, it’s only foreigners who would send it. But because they buy it… well sometimes Professor BLANK tells them to bring money so that he can buy. So that he can go and buy tubers, spinach, cabbage. He goes and buys it at the market. Because he’s spoken to several parents who produce. But, you know, time passes and now there’s nothing.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Now, what happens. Like if they need those products, they go buy them at the market and bring them here.

#BEING A FARMER

#WOMEN ARE FARMERS TOO

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #4 (female; 67 years old; No education; Trader): We do all type of work, we just work. Nowadays when we work the land, the land does not produce anything, do you understand me? It does not give anything

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Same thing, I would say that we’re farmers. That’s what we plant even though when we’re finished planting we don’t, we don’t… We’re obliged, we must plant, because that’s what we live on. If we have something we can sell in the market or something else that isn’t available, they buy it from you and we can make 50 goud to eat. What that doesn’t mean, I’m telling you that the gardens yield. That means there are some gardens you must buy fertilizer to put on them. And you can finish making a garden and you can’t buy fertilizer, you don’t have the money to put fertilizer on it.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, I am number 5. Yes, we work, we are farmers. But when we are not making gardens, we work, we work the land.

#CROP TYPES

Socio-Dig: OK I understand that the land does not produce, but do you have any crop that is year-round?

Public: Beans, beans.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #3 (female; 5 children; Education unknown; Trader): The beans, even if it is lost, even if I lose mine, or if you can save yours, all can barely do a little something.

A participant says: We planted in October for December. In December, if you do not die and it is not lost, you can harvest it. In January you can have more.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): January, even though not everyone will freely admit, it will give 3 harvests for the year.

Public: Not everyone. You must plant three times?

Socio-Dig: Do you also harvest three different times?

Public: Yes, you can harvest it.

Unidentified Participant: You can plant it in January, you can plant it in March or in April.

Unidentified participant: If it’s good, if it’s good. We plant in July, then we plant in October.

Some of the participants are talking simultaneously.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #3 (female; 5 children; Education unknown; Trader): … look you can plant the peas …. Now you wait on the rain, now it grows.

***

Socio-Dig: The first question I can ask is about agriculture. Do you work the land? And what do you do?

Public: Yes, I work …

Socio-Dig: Anyone can respond, but you must say your number.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, I am number 5. Yes, we work, we are farmers. But when we are not making gardens, we work, we work the land.

Socio-Dig: OK, what do you harvest?  What do you do most?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Well, we plant plantains, yams, despite yams, now I see that yams have a problem because sometimes yams almost want to be a loss,  the garden is lost. We plant corn, millet, but our millet, we lose it too because we don’t have millet any more. Because all the millet that we planted already had something that falls on them… This means that we don’t have millet, we can’t cultivate millet, we don’t plant it any longer…. Because if you plant it, there is a type of syrup that’s on it, the millet dies. It’s corn that keeps us going, and we have avocado trees, banana trees, and some yam. Without planting corn, beans, beans in February, black beans, bean season, butter beans… But there are times you plant, you lose them. But no matter what, since you’re there, you’re in the countryside, you live in the province, you must plant a garden, you must plant a garden no matter what.

Socio-Dig: You must plant a garden no matter what.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  Yes, you must plant a garden no matter what. You can’t not plant a garden.

Socio-Dig: OK, and you, you do anything else?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Same thing, I would say that we’re farmers. That’s what we plant even though when we’re finished planting we don’t, we don’t… We can finish spending money, we plant a garden and after that you don’t make a dime. The garden is lost, and you don’t make anything on what you spent. But no matter what, we can’t get mad at God. We’re obliged, we must plant, because that’s what we live on. If we have something we can sell in the market or something else that isn’t available, they buy it from you and we can make 50 goud to eat. What that doesn’t mean, I’m telling you that the gardens yield. That means there are some gardens you must buy fertilizer to put on them. And you can finish making a garden and you can’t buy fertilizer, you don’t have the money to put fertilizer on it.

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you. Number three you were going to say something?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): I would say the same thing. We plant plantains, malanga, yams and that’s all because since the 3rd of October (the day of Hurricane Mathew) we almost don’t find anything in the gardens. Because it destroyed everything.

Socio-Dig: OK, what produce do you usually have all year around.?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): All year round. During the whole year what produce do we have, we have bread fruit, we have mango, we have avocados.…

[5 Minutes]

Socio-Dig: That yields all year round?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): No, it’s every year that it yields?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): That could mean plantains.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): That means for all year we only have plantains.

Socio-Dig: Only plantains?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Yes, yams yield every year. Bread fruit too, mango. Only plantains we can say yield all round.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): The only thing that traders come to buy around here is breadfruit.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, breadfruit.

***

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Well, nowadays even manioc stems are almost gone. We can’ find them [to plant].

Socio-Dig: OK. You plant rice? You have rice around here? Number 8.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Eh, what we plant, we plant rice. We plant rice around here since long ago. My father, who is a farmer too, but he’s deceased now, there was a little land behind there that was a marsh, when the rain fell it held water and he would till it and plant rice in it. They would plant rice every year there. Every year they would get a harvest of rice. When they plant it with millet, the rice is ready…. If they plant it first, it’s already ripe before the millit. There was an animal they call a Sara bird.

Public: Sara bird.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): The Sara bird eats it. But it’s supposed to be ripe at the same time as the millet.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. You may continue. What fruit do you have, what fruit do you pant around here?

Public: We plant plantains, manioc.

Socio-Dig: Fruit, fruit.

Unidentified speaker: We have breadfruit.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): We have mango

Socio-Dig: Yes.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): We have Chachiman

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): We have soursop? We have soursop too, some have almost disappeared.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): We almost don’t have soursop anymore. But mango, I guarantee you that’s something peasants like a lot, like they’re going to plant them despite they don’t take root, but they still plant them. You understand.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. Eh, what food do you have? What food do you produce around here that as soon I arrive in the market I would find it, anytime?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): Well, I always say that’s about finished, but we always have some yams.

Socio-Dig: That means that if I arrive in the market…. Where is the market, the market for Ti Rivye?

Public: Yes, the Ti Rivye Market, yes.

Socio-Dig: What food do you know that you have, that if I go to the market I’ll find it anytime, anyday, anytime I go to the market I will find, something that you plant around here?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): Almost all our plants appear at certain times of year. There is a millet harvest. You understand. There is time for corn. But there is a place they call it Sixth that plants all the time, they always have produce. They have cabbage, sweet potatoes, they have yams. Even us, it’s them who supply us.

Socio-Dig: OK, you may speak, yes.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): There is manioc. Even us, it’s them who supply us with it. But for us, it’s yams….. We have manioc….. we almost don’t have it any longer too.

Socio-Dig: Yes.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #-4 : The food you’ll find on the market any time is plantain, yam, sweet potato. Those are things that you can’t not find.

Socio-Dig: You can’t not find them?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): Yes, any time?

#SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES (#BUYING GARDENS)

Socio-Dig: There is a system. I don’t know if they’ve made it around here. For example, you can have a produce in your garden. For example, let’s say yams.  You could have yams in your garden and someone comes to buy all of them. They do that around here?

Public: No. Above in Miso they do that. It’s in Miso that they do that. You’ll see that they do that with yellow yams.  In Miso they sell the whole garden. But here, we don’t do that.

Socio-Dig: They sell gardens?

Public: If they have a garden of cabbage, that’s how they sell it wholesale. They have traders up there that do that. But down here, we do not…

Socio-Dig: You don’t do that?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): No.

Socio-Dig: For the program to work well, another way they could come, they could come and buy the whole garden. Wouldn’t that be more in the advantage of the program, or would it be better to buy the way they are doing now?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, they would not sell, they would not sell the whole garden.

Socio-Dig: They don’t sell the whole garden around here?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, it doesn’t happen often.

Public:  … You know, they are not accustomed to doing that around here.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Also, if they plant, they also plant other things in the garden.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): It’s not easy for them to sell it like they do in Misot. It’s a mixed garden here. If someone makes a garden of yellow yams, he makes a garden of yellow yams. He sells that garden, after they dug up the yams, they plant something else in it, they immediately plant something else. If it’s a cabbage garden, the person plants only that. He puts in cabbage and a lot of it.

[25 Minutes]

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Around here, like if it’s yams that the person plants, he doesn’t put a lot of yams.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): And the person could have only one garden.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  You understand?  People don’t make a garden of just yams.  In the 6th section, they’re on the yams, they give them fertilizer. It’s not the same as here. Do you understand what I’m saying?

Socio-Dig: I understand what you’re saying.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  They are not the same way. That means that a person here, he plants yam, he plants a little malanga too, he has a little of something else, he has plantains in the garden. You get it? That means he can’t sell it just like that.

***

Socio-Dig: You have two. OK. The goal of the canteen is to give children food, local food. According to you, what food do you suppose they could give children that represents food you grow in your garden around here?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): The food they should give children, we have rice, we don’t grow it right here but in the commune. We produce yam and I see they give them too in the canteen. Sweet potato we grow too. And millet too, albeit it’s a little destroyed at the moment, but they used to give millet in the canteen.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. Is there anyone one else who would say something about local food they should give children?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): What they should give is manioc, manioc.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

#DECLINE IN LIVELIHOOD

Unidentified Participant: As one would expect, it grows, it grows and then it’s lost.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Now you have the year we just had, and you do not produce anything at all.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): We had corn that we have planted. But we lost it all. We cannot even find enough corn to give the kids… As a woman, when you have a little money you are going to manage, you are going to the market, there is always food at the market, always food at the market. When things are good I will buy a nice big plantain.

Socio-Dig: OK. Since all of you here are traders, I would like to ask you what you usually sell and what market do you usually sell your goods at?

***

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Since I was raised up, what my parents taught me was to farm. They did not even put me in school. Farming is what’s supported me right up to the old man I am now. But now I’ve become weak at it. What made me become weak, my body is discouraged. I break my neck working. And me, I don’t see why I work so hard. We don’t have irrigation. The rain doesn’t fall. And on top of everything else, what supported us was planting millet. It would be right now that we started getting the land ready to plant millet. And we would have some millet stashed away. Used to be that when you felt you had a problem, you would take a few mamit out of your stash, prepare it, and you go sell it for two cents. You don’t get any now. It’s like you’re working and you don’t see why you’re working. We don’t have any help. It’s only with the little bit of money we have that we do it … [Loud truck goes by] Well, after all, don’t have any help. The little bit we do, it’s wash your hands and then dry them in the dirt. We see things are odd for us nowadays.

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you. And how many times per year do you harvest?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Well, we can tell you that it’s only one harvest we get each year. We start weeding in January, February, stop in the month of March. If we get rain– because we don’t have irrigation–if we get rain in March we plant in March. But if we do not get rain, we plant when we get rain. The rain might not fall until April, May, it’s when we get it, that’s when we go to planting. When we plant, if God is with us and the rain continues, we can harvest in the month of January. After that, it’s the next January that we have a harvest.

Socio-Dig: OK. Everyone can participate. Let me elaborate on what I’m trying to say for a minute. Do you harvest all the food you plant at the same time? Or does each type of food have it’s time to be harvested?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Well, like corn. Corn doesn’t have a problem.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Corn, you can plant corn and at three months you harvest it. Millet, you can plant it in the month of May, June, July. You’re going to harvest it in January. Now, it’s only a single harvest you can get with millet. After that there is a millet they call 14th Century. I hear that millet yields in three months. That millet, you can plant in the month of August, September, November and it’s ready

Socio-Dig: OK, you were going to say something?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Me?

Socio-Dig: Number 5. You weren’t going to say something? I see that you wanted to say something.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #5 (Male; 37 years of age; 4 Children; No school; Farmer): [Laughs] No, well, what Papi said is what I was going to say too. When we work we can’t get anything because it doesn’t rain when we plant produce these days. To plant corn, corn doesn’t get rain, and when it does get rain, it’s already lost. And we can’t find anything to put on it too. After that, people let their livestock loose, we lose everything, we don’t get anything at all.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Is there no one else who would like to add anything? What crop can land around here not produce?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Well, a long time ago when the rain used to fall regularly, whatever you put in the ground the earth produced. But now, the way the rain has become, now the rain doesn’t fall when it’s supposed to fall. We feel like the soil is not good nowadays….

#TENURE

Socio-Dig: OK. And that land you plant, that land, is it your land? Or is it land you rent?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): We rent it.

Socio-Dig: Yes.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): We rent it. We take partners to work it. There are some people who have their own land too.

Socio-Dig: To take a land on rent, how much does that cost?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): How much it costs depends on the land. A rental can cost you 1,000 dola (Haitian = 5,000 goud). There’s land that can cost 2,000 dola too. If Zanka has land, that can cost you 1,500 dola, it depends on the land.

Public: Yes, that depends on the price of the land. If the land can produce plantains and other things, it can be expensive.

#PROCESSING

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Well, we don’t really eat mango in this area. We don’t have the means for that. We have heard of processing, but we don’t know how to do it.

***

Socio-Dig: Does anyone in the neighborhood do processing, fry things, do they have that around her, nothing processed for example?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): If someone fries food they go sell it in the market.

Public: They sell fried stuff in the market. The person could take some fried dough, a little basket, a little bucket of bread fruit.

#INPUTS

Socio-Dig: OK. And for seeds. Where do you buy seeds to plant?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #5 (Male; 37 years of age; 4 Children; No school; Farmer): Well, us, we don’t use seeds. Our land is hot land. That means we can’t use seeds.

Socio-Dig: And fertilizer, do you use fertilizer? Yes, I give each person a chance to say something. What number do you have again?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #5 (Male; 37 years of age; 4 Children; No school; Farmer): Number five.

Socio-Dig: Yes, you may speak number five.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #5 (Male; 37 years of age; 4 Children; No school; Farmer): We cannot really use them, no! What causes that? They now say it’s only where it’s cool that you use fertilizer. But us, if we put on fertilizer I don’t know if it can be good, no. If you just put it on, it can burn it. And our soil is hot soil. We don’t use fertilizer.

Socio-Dig: OK. Yes, number 4, you were saying something?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer):Yes, ah, we have fertilizer that is good for us, yes. But we don’t have an agronomist who really helps us to do that kind of work. That means it’s something that, it’s by force that that we make it happen. It’s us who force it. We don’t have people to help us understand. They help other people. The fishermen have help. Everyone else, other people have help. But us farmers, we don’t get help. We would do it. But I can tell you that we do not find help, neither economically or technically.

Socio-Dig: Techically. OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Concerning, see, us, we don’t have a State agricultural extension office, an agricultural service where we can get seeds when we need to plant them. It’s us, with our own produce. We take out a little part for us to eat in the home. We take out a little part to sell. We take out a little part to save. When we need to plant, we plant. That’s to say that we would ask, especially the functionaries of WFP, well, I don’t know, I’m not saying for them to do anything, but they could ask on our behalf.

Eh, how could we put an agricultural extension office in place, so that when the farmers have a need for seeds, they would know where to go. They would not need to go and walk around the market. It could happen that they go to the market and buy bad seeds. They don’t grow. But if it’s the State that makes an extension service available, that has plants in the program, they’ll give plants that are good, plants that grow. We need that. And we also need an office that can loan us money when we do not have enough resources to work. After that, we go to work and give back a part of our harvest to the bureau. After paying back to the fund, we always take out a part for us to eat. If we work, we have to eat. We have wives, we have children. The household needs to eat. We take out a part to satisfy the bureau, to pay the debt we have there. And one part we eat. Now, we ask the State to take on it’s responsibility, to touch us because we feel isolated in this area. We do not find any assistance. We hear that we have an agronomist, but we’ve never seen one. They sit behind a desk in Port-au-Prince, we never see them. I know that an agonomist should work with the peasants on the land, to say, ‘here is how you plant a plant.’ Because us, we don’t have any training. We don’t know how to plant. It’s true that we’ve found ourselves farming the soil, but we don’t really know how to plant! We don’t really know how to plant a plantain tree! We don’t know how to put a millet seed in the earth? Because when we plant, we plant with our hands. Sometimes there are so many of them that we have to yank some of them up. When they are too many, they can’t grow. But if we had an agronomist who could tell us how many seeds to put in an area, now the plant would develop faster, the same plant would develop better. When we plant corn, we put 4 or 5 seeds in a hole. If we had an agronomist he could tell us, ‘Four is too many. Here is how many you should put.’ But we have no training. We could do everything when planting, but the little harvest we get is only enough for us to make food. We can’t make money.

#WORKERS

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Yes, those men with a mere 50 goud they have, they buy land [many voice talking], buying buildings now. Hm, hmm, in the past, people, anytime they touched land, like the group leader sometimes used to encourage the group to do more [work], ‘let us do one more.’ Nowadays people look, you see the workers arrive and telephone in hand aah they are still there. They stay from six to ten in the morning and they would not do anything else. Some may arrive at the site and there is not a place to plant a mammit of beans.  [a participant is talking at the same time] You can find around six workers … or if they work they will be well rewarded.

#CHILDREN AND WORK

Socio-Dig: OK, I have other questions for you, do you known how to do a garden with your mother and father?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: What crops do you do plant?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): I usually help them in planting corn, I would help them dig holes for the corn seeds and after I help with the weeding.

Socio-Dig:  OK

Serge: You know how to throw a hoe?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: You know how to pick corn as well?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Have you ever helped carry produce to the city of Miragoane to sell with your parents?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No, I have not done so.

Socio-Dig: You have not done so?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No

Socio-Dig: And you what do you know how to do?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): When my father goes to plant the corn, I would help him place the corn and I would help covering the holes.

Socio-Dig: You know how to pick beans.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: And corn, you know how to sow it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Have you ever been to the market?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Really?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes, I go to the market with my sister.

Socio-Dig: To go and sell?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: OK. When you go to sell, what do you to sell?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): We usually go and sell plantains and breadfruit.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you what do you know how to do?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): What?

Socio-Dig: And you what you know how to do?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): When my father goes to the field, I help him carry the wood to make charcoal.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you usually help you father sow too.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: What do you usually help plant?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I usually help when he plants corn … I help put it in the hole.

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): I cover the holes.

Socio-Dig: Cover the holes [laugh], you know how to pick corn?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: Really. corn to eat or to sell?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): To eat.

***

Socio-Dig: Do the people at your house plant crops?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, because where I live is by the sea.

Socio-Dig: OK, and you number 3?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): People at my house plant.

Socio-Dig: They plant?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: What do you do? Do you help in the garden?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes, I help my father. For example, I weed when he plants corn.

Socio-Dig: You weed?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes, sometimes, even when it’s not me who digs the holes to plant, I put the corn in the dirt and cover it with my foot. I do that.

Socio-Dig: You do that?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK, number 5.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): My grandmother cultivates. My mother doesn’t make a garden. My grandmother makes a garden. A big one. They put up a fence. There’s a little child at my house who likes to mess with the fence. They must make it so he can’t pull it up. But the fence isn’t so high … Like when they are going to tie goats. But when they made the garden I didn’t do any work in it.

[30 minutes]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): When they cultivate, I don’t do anything except I put beans in the thing… I put beans in the thing. That’s all I do. I do not weed. I did not do anything.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): In cleaning the garden, I didn’t do anything.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I help my parents plant. I do not weed. I help them dig holes. I cover the holes with dirt. I do not weed.  When it’s time to harvest, I help them.

Socio-Dig: You help your mother or your father?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): My aunt. My mother’s sister.

Socio-Dig: OK. And you number 1?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): I don’t go help.

Socio-Dig: You don’t go. What work do you do at your house? When you are at your house, what do you do?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): I clean the floor, do housework.

Socio-Dig: Do you make food?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: What food do you make? (laughs).

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): What do you most like to make? (laughs)

Socio-Dig: You two are good friends? You two are friends?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig:  What would do you do at home number 7?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): I sweep. I clean the floor. I work in the house. I was dishes. Sometimes, if I’m not too busy, I make food. I work. I go to the water when we have none. I work.  But, as long as I don’t yet know my lessons, I don’t work.

Socio-Dig: You make food?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: What food do you most like to make?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Rice and beans, or bean sauce and mushed vegetables.  It’s not food that I really like to make.

Socio-Dig: It’s not food that really like to make.  And you number 5?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): I get up in the morning and make the beds. I clean the floors. I sweep. I wash dishes.

Socio-Dig: That’s it?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  I make food for the baby

Socio-Dig: You make food for the baby?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade): Yes. Sometimes I make soup for him. Sometimes I make spaghetti.

Socio-Dig: And you number 4?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): I most like to make food like rice, or corn meal with bean sauce and fish sauce.

Socio-Dig: You? [laughs]

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes, I make food all the time.

Socio-Dig: Really?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: You make food for yourself or you make food for everyone in the house.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): For everyone in the house.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): That’s right. Sometimes my stepmother is not there. My father doesn’t ask anyone else to make food in the house. It’s on me.

Socio-Dig: You’re the biggest?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): No, yes, I’m the biggest. Like, it’s not me… Among those who are living with my father, I’m the biggest. But I have a big sister, after that I have another big sister… A big brother too. There he is, over there.

Socio-Dig: But in your father’s house, you’re the oldest child, OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Me, what do I do?  Like, sometimes I go look for firewood in the afternoon.  I go to get water and to play. Like water to wash the dishes. I’m the one who does it. I’m the one who gets the water to wash dishes.

#TRADING

#TRADER BUSINESS DESCRIPTIONS

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #4 (female; 67 years old; No education; Trader): I usually go sell in section 6th. If weather does not destroy the plantains, we take a load to market, we go sell them and make money, we make our little money. Other times it’s Kongo beans we have.  If you want, you can let the beans dry. If you’re in need, you can go to the garden, because it belongs to you, you can gather a bin of beans and go and sell, make some money! After that, you can plant yam. if you don’t get anything, if the weather destroys everything, you can plant a bucket of malanga.  Sometimes you’ll get a sack of malanga and you go sell it. After that there is nothing else. You’re just surviving. The last thing for you to do is with the money….  You put your head in your hand like a little Jesus, just staring off

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): I sell at Misot. I used to go to Port-au-Prince but now I am old. I don’t take the bus to go sell in Port-au-Prince any longer.

Socio-Dig: When you go to Misot, you are selling to people who are going to sell in Port-au-Prince?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Yes.

Socio-Dig: What do you usually sell?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader):  I sell the products of my garden that I work on. Whatever I cultivate in the garden, I take to the market. Products such as beans. If I have plantains in the garden, I go and sell them. Whatever I have in the garden, I will go and sell.

Socio-Dig: You sell wholesale?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Yes, I sell wholesale to other traders who will resell.

Socio-Dig: Wholesale, as by “mammit” or sack?[1]

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): By mammit. You only sell by mammit? The green beans you sell by mammit. The green beans you sell by lot for resellers to sell in Port-au-Prince.

Socio-Dig: OK do you sell yams also?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Whatever I have, I will sell.

Socio-Dig: How much money can sell a lot of yam for?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): No. I don’t usually have lot of yam because I come from Misot.

A participant says: People in the high lands have yams.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Us here in the lowlands, it’s only a small white yam we have. Only a few sacks of yams we take along for sale.

Socio-Dig: So, you sell more beans?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Like butter beans, or normal beans, I go to weigh them, and I sell them by mammit. Dry like that.

Socio-Dig: For how much, more or less, do you sell a mammit?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Ah, according to the price it is sold. There are days when sell I sell for 12, you sell at 10. Depends on the price it is selling at. The price it is selling at and the price you sell it at too.

Socio-Dig: Let me ask you, where do you sell?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Sometimes I go buy in Misot. I go and sell things from the garden. Sometimes I go to Port-au-Prince.  I buy in Misot and sell in Port-au-Prince.

Socio-Dig: Hmm. What do you buy in Misot and sell in Port-au-Prince?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader):  Sometimes I buy yams. Whatever you find, you take. I buy a small lot of Malanga [other inaudible conversation in the background]

Socio-Dig: Do you buy by the sack?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I buy by lot. A lot it is 2 or 3 pieces together, that’s what we consider a lot.

Participants: [Many speaking together- no clear conversation] A big lot they put on the ground and you must give an offer, you give them a price. Carrots are bought by the sack.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): When it is a sack you buy, a sack of carrots, when you get there, you must work it well, so you do not lose the investment.

Socio-Dig: Where in Port-Au-Prince do you usually sell?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I used to go to Carrefour to sell.

Socio-Dig: Carrefour? OK. When you get there, do you sell them by lot?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I sell by lot. Sometimes I sell wholesale.

Public: [laugher]

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I sold by lot, I sold wholesale.

Socio-Dig: How many days do you spend when you go to Port-au-Prince to sell?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I usually do not stay long…  2 to 3 days. If you go on a Monday, you return on Wednesday.

Socio-Dig: Ahh that means you sell to resellers?

Participants: Yes, you sell to resellers.

Socio-Dig: OK. It not like if you to go sit in the market place, you don’t sell to individuals for personal use.

Public:  No, you sit in the warehouse. There is no place.  You pay for a space. You sit there, and you divide your produce into lot, you sell with a big market woman who is going to divide it into smaller lot, but you must pay her, yes. A lot of other people are going to participate in selling it (laughs). That’s how it is, yes.

Socio-Dig: These resellers, do you also sell to them by lot?

Public: by lot.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): By lot, by lot depending on the size it can be sold for, 60, 80, 100 per lot, according to what you brought.

Public: Many, many.

Unidentified Participant: Many, they in turn must sell the product for a profit.

Unidentified Participant: You sell all your load. If you brought, it they will nickel and dime you, haggle you… they will buy it.

Unidentified Participant: At times, you hurry home as well, you hurry home. My children don’t want me to use the bus for transport, so I hurry home.

Socio-Dig: How much can you buy a portion of yams for in Misot? How much profit will you do if you were to sell it in Port-au-Prince?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Oh, you can buy a lot of yams for up to 2,500 goud. You can buy a lot of yam and when you get there to unload it you can resell it for 2000 or 2500 goud.

Unidentified Participant: For you and the transport, it is for the transport you are working.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I do it on each. I do, at times you don’t even earn the money to pay for what you bought. It is in your own money you have drawn to pay for transportation.

Socio-Dig: Let us give number 3 a chance to talk. I see her daydreaming [laugh].

Public: [laugh]

Socio-Dig: It can be the heat that makes you that way?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): No, it is cool over there, problem, problem.

Socio-Dig: Good, the question is the same, what do you sell and where do you sell?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): Canape-vert.

Socio-Dig: Huh, what do you sell in Canape-Vert?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): I could carry five sacks of charcoal [laughs]. I might buy some small passion fruit if they’re in season. When it’s season, I ripen bananas. I get there, the comptroller gives it to traders who in turn give them to the resellers. I don’t carry merchandise that for retail. What I am buying are bananas for around 5,000 goud worth. I buy 5,000 goud of bananas. Now, once they ripen, I will pay for transportation to go to Port-au-Prince with them. Now the retailer comes and takes them form you, you count and give to the reseller to sell them by the piece.

[participant says simultaneously: so, they would go and resale individually].

Socio-Dig: How do you carry these bananas?

Public: In a basket, in a basket.

Socio-Dig: How big might the basket be?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader):  You can buy a small basket for 75 goud.  It is not tall, it is not made tall.

Public: [laugher]

Socio-Dig: I am shocked because I have seen the type of basket Jacmel has!

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): No, it is not the basket from Jacmel

[Many people are talking simultaneously]

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): This is a small basket, it is made of bamboo.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): That is the small basket. They used to carry the basket for you for 15 dola (75 goud). Up, up, up it went up, 100 goud. Up, up, up, it went up 25 dola (125 goud). 25 dola. 25 dola, 125 goud per 25 dola for loading of each basket, put it on top of the truck. You’ll pay the worker 25 goud for each basket. Each basket must be paid. If you have 4 baskets of bananas, 100 goud. If you have 6 baskets, 30 dola (150 goud). Upon arrival the same way it was loaded in Misot on the truck, you must pay to offload in Port-au-Prince. This will cost you about 60 dola (300 goud). On arrival, if you’re lucky and the bananas are not squashed and you are at a total lost…

Public: [laugher]

Unidentified participant: Now they don’t even want to load up for 50 goud.

[Someone speaking inaudibly]

Socio-Dig: OK. How about number 6?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I’m not accustomed to to taking the bus for this type of trade. My trade is cosmetic products. It’s sandals, notebooks during school year, I would sell these types of products. And, I buy and sell sacks of sugar, rice, things, I sell oil, little things to eat. After that, whenever I have garden stuff such as like when I have yams, the yams we don’t want to go to waste. We load up our donkeys and go to sell them. Plantains.  If the Hurricane did not occur, we used to have them. We could be taking 2 loaded animals to the market. Now if I can find a small one to buy other little things. But now I usually don’t go sell retail on top of the bus.

Socio-Dig: Where do you go to buy your cosmetic products?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Sometimes I would buy in Port-au-Prince, I can sometimes buy in Fond Des Negres.

Socio-Dig: You said you buy rice by the sack, do you sell retail?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Yes, I sell retail, I sell by mammit, there is something called gode or a glass

***

Socio-Dig: Where do you go to sell?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Canape Vert.

Socio-Dig: Canape Vert, Port-au-Prince? How do you transport? How is that done?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Transport?  We buy at the market. We pay a vehicle. We pay to load, we pay for loading. And we pay the driver who brings them for us. And when we get there we pay again to unload. There are times … you pay dearly, and you don’t even make any money.  You go through all that trouble for nothing. And sometimes, and especially when some other place brings in a big quantity, you also don’t make money, you understand?

Socio-Dig: OK.  The question I would ask, does the vehicle… Where do you buy? You buy here, or you buy…?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  No, I buy in the market because you must… You buy it down below here from a person. You must have a pack animal to get it from the mountain, for me to come sell it. But, I don’t have an animal to carry it to the market, no. I buy it in the market and I put it right away on a vehicle to bring it. There are times also you go through misery, we get to Port-au-Prince at midnight. When you arrive at midnight, we unload and it’s 1 o’clock in the morning. 2 o’clock in the morning. And then we bath and just get a little sleep and by 4 o’clock we get up so we can sell.

Socio-Dig: OK. When you go to sell in Port-au-Prince, do you sell wholesale or you sell per regime?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  No, we don’t sell them…. Yes, we sell them only retail, you understand? But if someone needs a big bunch, we can sell to them. But the bananas we sell also by the small bunch, and sections so that they can ripen them…

Socio-Dig: Bananas?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Yes.

Socio-Dig:  You sell bananas or plantains?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): I buy plantains and I ripen them.

Socio-Dig: You ripen them, OK. You sell them by the small bunch. I see that they have places where they sell bananas by the basket.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): No, we don’t sell bananas by the basket. Bananas by the basket is when they come from the Dominican Republic.

Socio-Dig: OK. Where in Port-au-Prince do you sell.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Canape Vert.

Socio-Dig: Canape Vert?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  In the Canape Vert market. I used to go to Carrefour. But I don’t go anymore. I go to the market in Canape Vert.

Unidentified voice: Why doesn’t she go to Carrefour anymore?

Socio-Dig: OK, and you ma’am, what did you used to sell when you were selling?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Well, I was never a Madan Sara. I always sold loads (by the pack animal). Go up to the mountains, get a load of plantains, put them on the animal, take them to sell in the market.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): I didn’t Sara. I went to sell things in the market at Ti Riviere, Miso that is over there. That’s where we would go and sell our loads.

Socio-Dig: What did you sell the most?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  Plantains, yams, malanga. It can be avocados. We bring everything to sell in the market. When we get there, the merchants buy them from us, or anyone who needs to buy.

Socio-Dig: OK. Let’s take an example of yams. Let’s say yams.  Let’s take yams for example. How do you sell yams?  Do you sell them by the pile or, by the ‘lot’ or per individual fruit?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): You can sell by the ‘lot.’ You put 3 or you can split the pile… or if a merchant asked for the pile you can sell a pile.

Socio-Dig: How many yams does a pile have?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): You can ask 250 dola (1,250 goud) for a pile of yams. Depends on how big they are.

Socio-Dig: How many yams could be involved?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): It could have many. I don’t remember. It could be a lot.

Socio-Dig: It would be a lot?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, a long time ago, yes. If they’re in season, they’re more expensive, yes. You know, things are not the same anymore. Nowadays they’re costlier. And yams are not as plentiful. Nowadays, the number of yams are less in quantity. Nowadays, in all gardens you almost don’t find any yams. Yams are more expensive. 250 dola for a yam, for a pile of yams, yes….

Socio-Dig: There are many yams?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): You sell it both for 100, 120 or so.  It depends on the size. If they’re small, you could sell it for 80, 90 dola. But nowadays, if you have them, they’re more expensive. It’s not the same as it was. It’s more expensive.

Socio-Dig: What thing?

[10 minutes]

Socio-Dig: You sell by the basket when you get to the market with them?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): You think we have baskets?

Socio-Dig: You don’t sell by the basket?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, avocados, when you transport avocados, it’s by lot you sell them. You count the lot and you put them in the sack of the buyer. You count them, then you put them in the person’s sack.

Socio-Dig: And breadfruit, how do you sell bread fruit?

Public: By the dozen, by the lot, and by the individual. Four make a lot.

Socio-Dig: How much could a dozen breadfruit sell for?

Unidentified voice: What’s a dozen?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): That depends on the price. They could sell for 100 dola (500 goud), they could sell for 80 dola (400 goud)

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Last year, they were already selling for 100 dola, yes. But now, they’re selling for 35 to 40 dola.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): They went down.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Even 25 dola.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  The price is down now.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Because when they have a lot, the price comes down.

Socio-Dig: Beans. You guys said that you grow beans around here. Green peas too?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): No, no green peas around here.

Socio-Dig: Butter beans?

Public: Butter beans, black beans.

Socio-Dig: Butter beans and black beans, how do they sell beans like that around here?

Public: By the mammit.

#LOVE TRADING

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader):  I like to do trade quite a lot… Since the last hurricane, there is no business, and I love to trade.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #3 (female; 5 children; Education unknown; Trader): I like to do my little trade a lot. Now that I am getting older, the activities I used to do I can no longer do them…

#CREDIT

Socio-Dig: Hm- I know the difference between gode and glass. Do you purchase on credit from people so that you can go and resell?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): No. I mean if someone is accustomed to buying from you, there may be a day the person can’t pay for all of it and so you let them owe you the balance. But I do not like it because even if you want to do it, there are big traders who may want to sell your credit because the big traders are also buying on credit. You may take the credit and you go sell on credit, but you give your good friend some credit and you know sometimes, it’s not all of us who pay. There are people who take a little something and she makes a sacrifice and pays. But when you trade on credit, it’s going to be a problem for you.

Socio-Dig: Have you borrowed money from any institution, like FONKOZE?

[Many participants are talking inaudibly]

Unidentified Participant: You shouldn’t say FONKOZE. We are in SENKAMI. We can go to SENKAMI anytime.

Socio-Dig: Are you a member?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): Because when you borrow and pay back, that is a good thing.

Participant says: I have good credit, I have good credit.

Socio-Dig: What is the most amount of money you can borrow?

[Many participants talking simultaneously]

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): We usually don’t take too much.

Public: laughter

Socio-Dig: Well, I don’t know, it may not be a lot. But I would like to know the most you can borrow and at what rate it would be?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): We can take 2,000; like 1,000; 1,500, you can go higher but I don’t choose to.

Socio-Dig:  If you would want to go bigger how much they would lend you? If I would want to do more. I can take 4,000 to 5,000, if I would want to rise the stake.

Public: We are all in the same position.

Unidentified participant: Yes, just one word.

Socio-Dig: Are you also in the credit program ma’am?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): Heeeyyyy, I would do it, but I don’t know how to do it.

Socio-Dig:  The lady who usually does it cannot show you how to do it?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): No, no I don’t go to FONKOZE. Like now other people lend me money.

[Many Participants doing small talk simultaneously]

Socio-Dig: The people who loan to you are family or friends?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Friends.

[Many Participants talking at the same time with Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant # 1]

[While the conversation continues Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 says:  Godmother… let me talk…_]

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): What I mean, like me, if I am struggling with my limited means, I see that she already has a few 1,000 goud to manage. But while I don’t go on the bus, I might let her borrow 1,500, 2,000 goud to add to her 1,000 goud, she goes and hustles and when she returns she will give me mine back.  That’s the way it is.

Socio-Dig:  She doesn’t have to give it back to you with interest.

Participants: No

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): No. We have some people giving it with interest. Those people are called “Eskont.” But the way we live, we do not have people who eskont.

[several people talking at simultaneously]

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): You may have a place you usually buy your product.  Like I buy rice, sugar cooking oil, soap and so on. My money may not be enough if I owe on it and I don’t borrow. Because if I borrow it is not more for me, because when I am done I return the credit I borrowed, it is not good for me. Like when I go to buy, I always must have other money to buy with. That’s the reason I don’t ever go and borrow money [she says the rest at a lower tone].

Socio-Dig: Does your husband do gardens as well?

Public:  Yes

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Yes, they are the ones sowing the land for us.

Public: Laughter

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Me, in that sense, I’ve never seen WFP talking. I would think that even if it wasn’t’ today, maybe not even tomorrow, but I would think it has a vision for people who are having to take high interest loans at SENKAMI or FONKOZE.

Socio-Dig: [laughs] That is why you thought I came? I didn’t come for that. But it’s not impossible that one day they can put that in the program. But for now, the most important thing for WFP is that all schoolchildren can get school meals, and how this program can cost less so that they can feed more children.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): We would hope that WFP make the changes for the food to cost less and to be able to support the traders, that is what they would like to do, support the traders. Because there are occasions when they can call the trader for a loan. There are those people who are afraid to borrow from bank other association pushing the trader to sign, come on, come on come on. That means if WFP is World Food Program, if it would give the trader support too, I believe me that would be… another beautiful thing. Because it is the children of the trader, their family who are eating the same products.

[many participants saying yes]

***

Socio-Dig: …Do you get credit from an institution that you can borrow from and put into commerce?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, we don’t do that. …I don’t do that, because it’s something I’m afraid of. I’m afraid because sometimes you borrow money and you lose your merchandise.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  There are time you borrow money from someone and you lose your merchandise. You didn’t have your own money, it drives you into a state of frustration, you must pay it back.

Socio-Dig: From someone?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): And me, I’m someone who doesn’t get frustrated for nothing. If it’s money, I don’t get frustrated. I do what I can do to get by. But if you borrow money, you must pay it back. There are times you buy merchandise, the merchandise spoils or s thief can steal it, or steal your money. Now you’re frustrated. You pay it back. That’s what makes me not like borrowing.

Socio-Dig: OK. When you used to sell, did you take credit from…?

[Everyone is speaking at once]

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): No, I traded with my own money. Slaughtered animals, slaughtered pigs, and then invested in other activities. Bought millet, bought beans, bought peanuts, sold them with my own money. I’m always afraid of borrowing.

Socio-Dig: You never borrowed?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Yes, I borrowed, yes.

Socio-Dig: Where did you borrow?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): At BNC.

Socio-Dig: Do you ever buy merchandise at the big depots?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Yes, I used to buy, yes, I bought with my own money, so I didn’t wind up owing.

Socio-Dig: But that’s clients of people who know you?

Public: Yes, we buy from people who know us.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): At the big depots.

Socio-Dig: When I say wholesale, for example, if you’re selling rice, you’re selling beans, you’re selling cooking oil, do you get to the depot and take merchandise on credit. You buy I buy it’s after you sell that you come pay them?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Yes, that’s what I do, that’s what I do.

Socio-Dig: You do that?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Yes.

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): No, I don’t take big things on credit.

Socio-Dig: Do you take little things to eat on credit?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Yes, I don’t take big things on credit.

Socio-Dig: And you too?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  I don’t buy big things on credit.

***

Socio-Dig: Is there no association of women around here?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  They had a chicken farm. You know, FONKOZE was here and they came and did something with them. They loaned them…

[Telephone rings]

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): The director offered it to me. I told him no, I don’t like it.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like it?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Every time there’s a meeting, the women go. And every time they take some money to give FONKOZE. The director offered me. At that time, I had a baby, I said no, I’m not taking the littlest thing because I don’t like it. If I have 50 goud I made, then with that 50 goud I’m not going to give it to someone else. If I lose, I lose; if I win, I win by myself.

Socio-Dig:  Did you tell FONKOZE that it’s a headache?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Aaa (laughs) A headache.

***

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): Produce, sometimes we already owe it. Because when you don’t have anything to work with you go look for it from someone else who has it, you go get a little money. And like that you don’t even know if you’re going to harvest anything at all because you already borrowed money both for millet and for corn. Whatever you get you almost don’t find anything even for you to eat because you already owe it, you must give them a low price.

#MEN SELLING

Socio-Dig: Do your husbands ever go to the market to sell?

Public: No

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): No, they don’t go. Sometimes if they have some cows, they go sell or if they need to buy a cow. If they want to go buy a cow, they go to the market. But we are the ones, when there are some plantains, we go and sell them. If the market day was profitable, we take 50 goud and add it to our existing cash to pay our debt. But at times it is not enough to buy food for the household.

***

Socio-Dig: Let us do a small comparison between women and men. Do you process some products such as mango, like you take the mango and turn it into something else, things like that? … What do women do and men not do? For example cooking, planting, and selling at the market?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Well, we do it all. I’m talking to you now, a father died leaving me with 6 children. It’s me who makes the garden. With the help of God, I work hard with my own arms. I toil in the ground. I handle a hoe, I handle a machete to make a garden and raise my children. I raised all my children and I paid for their educations.

Socio-Dig: OK, agreed! Do men go and sell at the market?

Unidentified Participant:  No, men could go, but where I live, we don’t have that.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Men at times might take a woman to market with pack animals. They get them through difficult passages. When they reach the market, they drop the women and head back home.

Unidentified Participant: Men in this little neighborhood, we can say they don’t go. There are men who go to the market.

Socio-Dig: You don’t see it as a big deal for a man flanked by his wife to go sell at the market?

Public: No, No

Unidentified participant:  We don’t have that. But sometimes it’s the man who goes and tries to sell at the market.

Unidentified participant: I’ve watched men selling for themselves alone. Like a man yesterday who stood by me. A participant asked, ‘what are you selling there, a load of mangos? … a load of mangos.

***

Socio-Dig:  OK. You know there are men who sell, who do everything in the market.

Public: Yes, there are men who are stingy lowlifes [laughter]

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): No, our husbands are not like that?

Socio-Dig: Yes, I know that (laughs). A question I want to ask about that.

Public: Yes, they have them, they have them.  They keep me from walking around the market when I go. [laughs] Yes, there are some men too… My husband isn’t like that, no, my husband is a good man.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  There are some men, they do business, you understand. There are men who do business, who buy charcoal down there and go resell it in the market. Women are doing business, they’re doing business.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  But there are men too who are stingy bums.  Breadfruit, sweet potatoes, my little plantains…. My husband isn’t like that. He doesn’t know the price of plantains. My husband doesn’t sell the little passion fruit he has, the little carosol he has. He doesn’t know the price of breadfruit, price of mango, he gives me my load, I go to the market, my money is for me.

Socio-Dig: OK. I’m going to ask a you a question. According to you, who do you think should be responsible for selling all those things?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Women.

Socio-Dig: Why?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Because women are responsible for the house, and so women sell (laughs).

Socio-Dig: And you number five, can men sell too?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, men can sell, men can sell. Men can sell everything, men can do everything too, yes.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Men have their stuff to sell.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Men do everything, but like carosol, passion fruit, kachiman, those things, when a man gets up to go sell those things, it’s not pretty. But for activity, men do everything, everything. But men are not supposed to go to the market with those things.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Since we’re in the countryside, because in the city men do everything. Men [in the city] don’t make a distinction in what commerce to engage in.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Listen, men don’t have anything they don’t do. Men do everything.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): But since we’re in the countryside, the man has a wife in the house, he’s not supposed to do it. If his wife isn’t sick, he’s not supposed to take those things to the market and sell them. His wife is supposed to do it. He’s supposed to do another kind of work for the house.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): You understand? His wife goes to the market. He’s supposed to plant a garden.

Socio-Dig: And if he and wife both go to the market?

Public: Right up to now he could be in the market.

Socio-Dig: He would be selling with his wife.

Public: He can sell, yes (laughs). He can stand, that’s rare, yes, but it happens, he can stand, he can stand.

Socio-Dig: If your husband did that, you wouldn’t have a problem with that?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): No, I would not have a problem with him, no. Because I already know the money that I have he’s not going to be messing with it, he won’t’ tell me what to do with it. Me, if I want to give him some of it, I’ll give him some. But there are men who can go and try to manage what you’re selling, after he sees what you’re making he says give him the money. People like that are not possible to have in the house and I manage the house and I’m the woman and I can manage the house.

#WOMEN SELLING

Socio-Dig: Manioc. OK. I have another question I want to come back to. With respect to gardens, where do you sell produce? When you harvest, where do you sell the produce? Who goes to sell it?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Produce, when they harvest, when we are in the house we have a basket, a person has a wife when he does the garden, what I mean is that it’s the woman who takes the produce and goes to the market with it and sells it.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Is there anyone who would like to say something more? OK. I’m going to return to the topic of the garden in a bit. You guys told me that it’s your wives who sell produce, correct?

Public: Yes, yes.

Socio-Dig: Is there no one who goes and sells produce? Why is it your wives who go and sell? If you want to sell, can you do it?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): Well, it’s her.

Socio-Dig: Number 3, you may speak.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): It’s my wife who has time. Well, she’s not working. Us, we’re always working. Sometimes we have a group of workers working for us, we have to represent ourselves in the group. You understand? We are in involved in every little thing, because if we are not involved in every little thing, you can say that the children’s school tuition will not get paid. Any little thing, it’s us who have to beat the water to make butter, you undestand.

Socio-Dig: That means that it’s your wives who….?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #3 (Male; 50 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Fisherman, Farmer): Yes, it’s her who is at the house, who has to turn her hand, who has to bring a little something to eat.

Socio-Dig: OK. Yes.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): When a man takes a woman it’s so that she can help him too in all that he does. All that you do do if you can’t have your wife when you finish working in the garden, oyou finish working and it’s you who has to go and sell the produce in the garden?

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Do you see that it’s possible? And it’s the woman who should go measure the produce. You, you should work to give the woman something to sell. [laughs]

Socio-Dig: OK. Now let’s say we get together, we create a group of farmers. Now let’s say that there is an institution that’s going to come and buy food from us. Who’s going to be in charge of selling that food? Is it the woman who is in charge of selling that food? Or is it you men who are going to sell the food?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): We will always have a woman who is at the head who will take responsibility of selling the food.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Because we group ourselves in an association or an organization, or a ‘regwoupman’ the way we say.

Socio-Dig: But it’s men that I see here. I don’t see any women, no.

Public: Yes.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): No, but it is an invitation that we received.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant # 6 : In the invitation that I got it said that we don’t need women that’s why….

Socio-Dig: We were looking for cultivators, we were looking…

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): That’s what I received because I asked if I may come with… The women told me no, it’s men. That’s why you find men here. If it wasn’t for that you would find several women. The organization has several women too.

Socio-Dig: Women cultivators?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Well, that’s what I tell you, yes, that’s what I heard, that’s why you only see men here. And what could happen is that she comes here, it’s not good, she has the right to come here to listen to our meeting, but because she knows that the organization isn’t going to have an extraordinary meeting. When there is something like that she should know. But often it’s by invitation or often by telephone call they say men, that’s why you find men here.

Socio-Dig: No, that’s nothing, no.

Serge : Yes, it’s nothing. Maybe after this we can get an idea of how many women you have.

Socio-Dig: Yes, we’ll ask some questions about that.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Like what you just said there, you said that if we had an opportunity, if we grouped in an association and some other group wanted to buy produce from us, how would we organize to sell it.

[noise of a vehicle passing].

Well, since we’re and organization, we feel that we would put 2 or 3 people in charge of selling. It doesn’t have to be women because men can sell too. Men can measure, men can sell. Me, I can measure and I can sell. Even this man here can measure. Everyone can measure.

Socio-Dig: OK, that means that what I’m trying to understand here is if you give it to an individual you will give it to a woman, but if it’s a group, men can sell, women can sell?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Yes.

Socio-Dig: That means that if you are alone, you can go sell too?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): No, well, men can go sell too. You know, there could be some men here that sometimes go and sell but they don’t want to admit it. Me, I have not yet gone and sold, but there are men who have sold.

Socio-Dig: Why haven’t you sold?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Yes, there are men who have sold. They might not want to say because they see that you’re a woman, they don’t want to admit it.

Socio-Dig: I don’t have any problem with that… [laughs] What I’m trying to understand is if you’re alone, you agree that a woman sells, but when your together, you say that men can sell Why when you’re alone, you can’t sell, but when you are in a group you don’t say the same thing. Why is that? Why is it that when you’re in a group you say that men can do it, but when you’re alone you say that it’s women you give to sell?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): No, we don’t say that it’s because women are women, because it’s her who feels she has more time than us. We are always busy. That’s why it happens that she can do it for us. But if she didn’t have the time, we could go too, yes.

Socio-Dig: If an association of women had more time, you could have them sell for you too?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Well, that’s what I would say to you, because it’s an association we’re starting here, to sell it can be women or it can be men too.

Socio-Dig: OK. No problem.

[35 minute]

Socio-Dig: Number 7 hasn’t said anything.

Public: You haven’t said anything. You sell cows. With cows we know it’s men who have to go [sell].

#MEASURE

Socio-Dig: OK. When you sell, do you sell by the mammit or in bigger units? For example, a market woman comes, she comes to buy everything in bulk from you or your wives go sell it in the market by the mammit?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Usually, even when a buyer comes to buy in bulk we still measure it by mammit. Longtime ago, the elders used to use « Barrel. » They say that 40 mammit makes a barrel. As soon as you get to 40 mammit you say, ‘I made a barrel!’ If it’s corn, you say, ‘I made a barrel of corn.’ If it’s millet, you say, ‘I made a barrel of millet.’ But it’s still measured by the mammit, no matter what.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): … We sent two representatives of the committee to purchase. When they arrived, after two markets, let me see if I can say it the way they said it, they said it was a humiliation. Because when they got there, because they must take the scale to weigh things, they didn’t find everything at once. … And as soon as the vendor sees that you’re weighing the produce, she’s already passed the word and every other vendor is impossible. And the money isn’t enough.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): …  … I went with my scale. I put it at the house of a friend. And I bought and weighed, bought and weighed. But when I looked, I saw that it wasn’t good like that….

***

#VALUE OF LOCAL FOODS

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Local food has vitamins. Food overseas, now they have a type of plastic rice, plastic spaghetti. It’s not good for you. Local food is better.

Public: Food from this country!

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #6: (Female; 46 years old; School teacher; Rheto; 1 child; 1 child in the program). The difference is because WFP was not local products. It was foreign products they used to give. It is good for the children to eat natural foods [and not imported foods]. It is good for their health.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). When WFP used to give it, it was not local products. But now it’s Local products and it’s good. It is better for the children. Our school was like that as well.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). Because the food is from our country and it has more vitamins.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Imported food has chemicals in. It is not good for our health. Local food is the best.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). Local food is better.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Non. Regarding imported food, especially if we were to say that we do not use imported food, we would be lying to ourselves. Especially regarding carrots and cabbage. We say they are local products. But they have something they put on them. Fertilizer. Fertilizer is something that is made with chemicals. Even carrots. The way Haitians love carrots, but they are produced by putting fertilizer on them. Cabbage, they put fertilizer on it. Doesn’t that have a consequence? Especially for us. We are based on local production. Even some yams, there are yams that don’t produce well and so they put fertilizer on them. What is a local product that has no fertilizer on it? I would say that it’s fruit….

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). First of all, we thank WFP, ROPANIP, and BND, the team that is working for the school feeding program. We are satisfied with the team. They give local products. It is a great satisfaction. Because they could give food us lousy imported foods. It is wrong for the children. The local foods have vitamins and protein for the children and that allows for school performance to be raised.

#IMPORTED VS. LOCAL FOOD

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you number 6. What do you think also, we know that it’s local food that they’re feeding the children, if they said that they were going to buy imported food to give the children to eat? What would you think of that? Which food do you think would be best, between local food and imported food?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Local food, they’re good too.

Socio-Dig: Number 1.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): Home food is good too. But we can’t sit around and eat the same food all the time. Like today, you’re eating tubers, you’re in the tubers. No. You must change the time, it’s corn meal you can eat. Sometimes it’s millet.

Socio-Dig: But, those are local foods. Corn mean, millet.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Yes, local food.

Socio-Dig: Ehen.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): But you cannot continue feeding the children only local food. There is foreign food too.

Socio-Dig: You should eat foreign food too?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): Yes [laughs]

Socio-Dig: When you say foreign food too, you’re referring to what?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): I’m talking about rice, flour.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): And even rice, we have rice too.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): Haitian rice, we almost don’t cook it.

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you cook Haitian rice? Why not?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): No… there are people who don’t like it. I have a child who doesn’t like it. Local rice, like yellow rice, I have children who don’t like it.

Socio-Dig: Ok. That means that you wouldn’t have a problem giving the children imported food.

Public: No. That’s not a problem. Just so long as the children eat I don’t have a problem with that.

***

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #9: (male; 22 years old, Farmer, Student; 10th grade; None children; No children in the program). Um, when it is already prepared and when you prepare it, that’s 2 different things. What they are eating now is our own products. We don’t know if it will come from China or the United States. I do not really know. Since they want to modernize everything, that modernization is making us all sick because there is something in the food that they send us. For instance, there was something called Papyo. It is a juice. A little juice that they put in plastic bags and whenever I drink it, I feel that my entire body is hurting me. Sometimes it puts me in bed for a entire day and sometimes my urine is sweet. I stopped drinking it. So, we have local products and we can prepare them. Sometimes we make guava juice, grapefruit juice, orange juice or soursop juice. We can make carrot juice. Not something that is prepared in another country. They are two different things….

***

Participant #6: (Male; 66 years old; Farmer, Pastor; 6th grade; 3 children; No child in the program). Well, if it was a foreign food, well, after some time it would cause a problem. Understand? Make people sick. But, it’s local food they are feeding the children. I appreciate that a 100 percent. Normally, WFP is helping. It’s helping our bodies to be healthy. Do you understand? I adopt it. My friends and I really appreciate WFP. Even though I don’t have children in the program, I have neighbors who have children in the program. I really appreciate it.

***

Socio-Dig: You like sweet potatoes. OK. Do you know the meaning of local food and imported food. Do you know the difference?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: No?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: You know what is local food?  If I say local food, do you know what that means?

Children: No.

Socio-Dig: Local foods are produced and prepared locally, in the local, in the neighborhood, in the area. As an example, plantain, manioc most of those are cultivated here.  Imported foods are foods that come in a plastic bag from foreign lands. You usually don’t know what is in them and how they are manufactured. I you must choose the best food which one the two choices would you choose? Number….

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): In what?

Socio-Dig: Between foreign food and locally produced food?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Our local.

Socio-Dig: Locally produced food, why?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Because it is better. The foreign one has worms in it.

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Number 4. The local food has better taste and the foreign food …. Don’t have … some are made with plastic.

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): The reason I like the local rice it is because it has vitamin in it.

Socio-Dig: Because it has vitamins in it?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Do you know what is local food and what is imported food? Do you know the difference?  Imported food, that means food that comes from another country. What do you think is best? Local food or…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Local food, that’s what’s best.

Socio-Dig: Local food.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): It’s us who produce it.

***

Socio-Dig:  Let’s go over it again. Which food do you think is better, food that is produced in Haiti or food that is produced in other countries?

Children: Food that is produced in Haiti.

Socio-Dig: Why?

Children: Because it’s us who produce it.

#LOCAL CAPACITY

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. And you guys around here, do you have enough vegetables that you could provision the school? That you could sell to the school rather than them going and getting the vegetables from some other place.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). We don’t have the produce around here. Take a look and see, it’s only now that the rains are falling and the grass is sprouting. They don’t have anything here right now.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). They would find it close to here. Like the plantains there. We have something called, lalo [a type of green]. We sometimes are full of lalo. We eat lalo. Make white rice. We are sometimes full of lalo. We have lyan panye [another type of green]. Behind that wall there, very close, we plant spinach. In the corner of the that church, we plant spinach flowers. We sometimes sell piles of spinach. But you know, since the bad weather, things are in tatters. We don’t have anything around here. We have how many months since we had rain? It’s only now that the rain is falling. We have little stuff that’s coming back. We would have to buy it in the market?

***

Socio-Dig: … Is it possible for that to happen, for us to produce what we need to cook? Could we find them in the community where the school is located?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers, Public: It’s not possible.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Yes, there are people in the area who know how to make cassava.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). We used to have, we could have bananas. But there are no bananas here [right now]. The hurricane took everything in the area.

Public: Our yam. Children eat bananas and we could make peanut butter. Peanuts are very expensive for us here. A shelled marmite goes for 80 dollars in Miragoâne.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). This question that you ask is important for us… What is important, what is essential, is that there are some things you may not be able to get. Food is very precious to me. For other items, you may need to go to other places to find them. Everything might not be there when you need it. Cassava may not be there when you need it. Rice is consistent, they know when it is going to be ready, we just send for it. But it can happen that you order cassava and it does not come on time. The children will go without eating. I think the food is important, it is more important. You could have chosen to add a glass of milk. Bread. We can find those things easily. If what is easier is to give all the children a glass of milk with bread, the cooks will not complain for salary any more. Myself, these foods would be even more important.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). WFP wants local production. They’re talking about local food. Some of the local food needs to be immediately available because we are going to need them daily. Consistently, every day. And they need to be on site, in case there is a shortage of the food. I don’t know if everyone agrees to what I am saying? If I we cannot get bananas, Matthew went with everything. I know what’s scarce. If they asked, for pineapple, it is not going to be easy to find; a marmite of peanuts is expensive. Sometimes we find them. I say the most paramount things is the food. I do not know about the others.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #6: (Female; 35 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 3 children in program). Me, I arrived late [for the focus group]. One of the last directors to come do the focus groups in October, INTEL, he saw the gardens of beans were full and beautiful. He took my contact information as if when the beans were ripe he would return and buy them from us. Until this day I haven’t seen him. Me, I could get in contact with him, I would let him know. I will let him know if I should go sell the beans in the market, well…

Socio-Dig: Would you like to sell with to the canteen program?

Public: Yes, yes, yes!

Socio-Dig: What crops do you grow the most here?

Public: Black Beans, peas. They say, ‘don’t put breadfruit in soup.’ But we always put breadfruit in our soup. [Because they have so much of it].

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). You don’t know the sheer amount of manioc people have. I know I can find manioc in great quantities. But then again, you might not find any [right now, because of the hurricane].

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #10: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 5 children; 3 children in program). I think that the way that BND and WFP have a committee that goes around and buys, and since it’s already place, the same way there is a kitchen committee or a parental committee, they will come to where we are. If it’s two or three people who make up the committee, they’ll go to the market, check the prices. I don’t know if it’s WFP or BND that goes and buys the beans to brings to us. Ourselves, with respect to the price, this committee is going to get the price from the market. Right now, a price of butter beans sells for 75 dollars (Haitian dollars = 375 Goud). Black beans were selling for 70 dollars (Haitian dollars = 350 Goud), and just went up past 80 dollars (400 Goud). If, in the place where they buy it, they do not have to pay for transport to bring it here, it’s the same price around here, according to me.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. And where you guys live on the mountain, what produce do you have most?

Public: We plant beans, corn. We plant carrots.

Socio-Dig: Ok. Do you think that it would be a good thing that, as parents, you could have an association that would buy food for the school and give it to the children?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): But, what they would ask of us, we don’t have any of that now

Socio-Dig: You don’t have anything now?

Public: We don’t have any produce, us. We don’t have anything right now…

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Even carrots, it’s higher up where they grow carrots and not where you are standing, no.

Socio-Dig: And yours?

Public: We plant sometimes. Sometimes it’s good.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): When it’s dry season they die off. But where there is rain… Right now, were’ doing a little planting.

Socio-Dig: Ok. This means that you would not want the school to count on you for food for the children?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): We couldn’t do it.

Socio-Dig: You couldn’t do it?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): No.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): There are times you plant, you don’t get anything. But you must have it all the time to keep the school fed.

***

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #9: (male; 22 years old, Farmer, Student; 10th grade; None children; No children in the program). We have guava and you do not give it any importance. As soon as you send it to a developed country they will take it and make it a finished product. They put in jams and preserves. They conserve it for like two, three, and four years. They always have a use for it. In Haiti, we could have done the same thing. We could take the guava and transform it into a finished product. We could have saved it for like two, three, and four years, like other countries do. We could still do it. We will still respect the local product.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): And the money isn’t enough. And the way things are, they go up and down. Sometimes there is abundance, sometimes there is not an abundance. Well, at the time we went to buy it could be a time when a lot of produce is finished, well, the price….Well, times like that I’m obliged to go … suffer. Finally, I had to work only the second week of September. The third person who did it, he came and asked, ‘director, do me a favor and do not send me to the market again to get humiliated’ etcetera. OK, so when I sent the fourth person the last week, he came and said, ‘ahh, my good friend, you know the misery I’m going through because there are products you can’t find and secondly, they’re expensive and the money, it’s not enough for the children we have, it doesn’t make it. Well, I already had talked to BND and told them that for the month of October they did not need to give Blank-School-1 money. They could give ROPANIP the money to continue buying. Then, unfortunately, we the had the hurricane. [laughs].

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): … That’s what made me stop in October and the hurricane came and stopped everything too. Now they send the produce to me. That’s how things went. But it was a beautiful experience for me, except that there was produce that, like the director said, were difficult to find. I would replace them by the lot. Some were really expensive too, like yam. There are times where yams are more expensive than other times. It was a beautiful experience. [Noise of a truck coming from afar]. That’s what made some people already rent a storage depot? But I couldn’t continue.

#PURCHASING LOCALLY

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Unidentified participant: Even if we would know something, there are some things that they wouldn’t be able to buy in the community.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #1 (female; 69 years old; 6 children; No education; Trader): Well, when they bring the food we don’t know what quantity they bring. We don’t know what advice we would give them.  You could tell them to buy locally, but we don’t know what quantity they would want.

Unidentified Participant:  As soon as the you have the money, you can buy the items. If they give you something to buy for them, they might pay 10 goud, you, you bargain, and you get it for 8 goud. Even 8 goud, they can afford to give you in the market.

Socio-Dig: Let’s take an example of beans they give to the children around here.

A participant says: yes, we give beans around here. but I don’t believe they are buying it from us.

Public: No, they don’t buy from us.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Once, I, I had an agronomist come by to see my beans. They had just started to flower, when Mr. Pharrel came to see me. He said, when the beans are ready to let him know. I was to let him so that he could buy them from me. But I never was in touch with him again. That means that we don’t know how they buy, if they buy at a good price, do they buy at a better price? That means we don’t know in this sense. Can we give them advice? Can we not give them advice?

Unidentified participant: Yes, we can give advice!

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): The advice that I can give them now in this area is that a mammit of beans is selling for 300 goud. But there are people who will not give it for 300 goud. In the market nowadays, it is going for 300 goud

Unidentified participant: 300 goud it is at the market

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): That means that they would make the difference, they will buy it themselves if they buy at 300 goud. If they buy at 325 that’s when I can give advice and say, ‘well, beans around here can be bought for 300 goud.’  Now, that 25 goud would be in the interest of both us parents and the people doing the buying. They would buy more. If they used to buy, for example, rice, since around here we don’t produce rice, we must buy it, and we buy Haitian rice too.  If they were accustomed to buying at 25 goud wherever it is they usually buy, we sell it around here for 20 goud, then I would say, buy it here. But we don’t know how they buy. Because of that, we don’t know. We don’t know what we’re going to say.

Unidentified: We only see, we don’t know.

Socio-Dig:  You see, you don’t know. That’s why we’ve come to speak with you today, to help you understand, and to get some ideas from you too. We would like that you help us find some ideas. Like we would say to you that the food they make now costs too much. They would like to get a better price. What would you propose that would be a better price for local produce, that’s the question?

Unidentified participant: Something local? They could give them sweet potatoes,

Unidentified participants: They already give that.

Unidentified participant: They give sweet potatoes, carrots, eggplant, chayote, cabbage, they give all those things.

Socio-Dig:  OK. They give all these things in the Canteen Program. You have committees as well?

Unidentified participants: We don’t have that stuff here, but you will find them up higher …. in the Misot market.

Unidentified participant: Something else, and it’s a good thing too, corn meal. Corn meal is good for children, they could cook corn meal and give it to the children…Oh, they give the same food every day. And you would think that they would give a different food each day.

Another unidentified participant:  They should give a different food each day.

Earlier unidentified participant continues: You don’t give them corn all the time, they must change it. You see what I’m saying to you, it’s a good food, it gives the children strength.

Another participant says: They need to have stew on the menu.

Participant first said:  They never have stew.

***

Socio-Dig: There is a system. I don’t know if they’ve made it around here. For example, you can have a produce in your garden. For example, let’s say yams.  You could have yams in your garden and someone comes to buy all of them. They do that around here?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Public: No. Above in Miso they do that. It’s in Miso that they do that. You’ll see that they do that with yellow yams.  In Miso they sell the whole garden. But here, we don’t do that.

Socio-Dig: They sell gardens?

Public: If they have a garden of cabbage, that’s how they sell it wholesale. They have traders up there that do that. But down here, we do not…

Socio-Dig: You don’t do that?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): No.

Socio-Dig: For the program to work well, another way they could come, they could come and buy the whole garden. Wouldn’t that be more in the advantage of the program, or would it be better to buy the way they are doing now?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, they would not sell, they would not sell the whole garden.

Socio-Dig: They don’t sell the whole garden around here?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, it doesn’t happen often.

Public:  … You know, they are not accustomed to doing that around here.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Also, if they plant, they also plant other things in the garden.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): It’s not easy for them to sell it like they do in Misot. It’s a mixed garden here. If someone makes a garden of yellow yams, he makes a garden of yellow yams. He sells that garden, after they dug up the yams, they plant something else in it, they immediately plant something else. If it’s a cabbage garden, the person plants only that. He puts in cabbage and a lot of it.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Around here, like if it’s yams that the person plants, he doesn’t put a lot of yams.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): And the person could have only one garden.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  You understand?  People don’t make a garden of just yams.  In the 6th section, they’re on the yams, they give them fertilizer. It’s not the same as here. Do you understand what I’m saying?

Socio-Dig: I understand what you’re saying.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  They are not the same way. That means that a person here, he plants yam, he plants a little malanga too, he has a little of something else, he has plantains in the garden. You get it? That means he can’t sell it just like that.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. If there were a school that wanted to buy food from you to cook and feed to the children, would that be something that interests you to participate in?

Public: It would be interesting. It would be good.

Socio-Dig: Why would it be good?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Because the food that the school bought from us, it would be the children who consume it. That’s good again because we would be proud because it’s our local food. Especially since it doesn’t have any chemicals in it like the imported food.

Socio-Dig: OK. You were going to say something else. Is there anyone who would add something else to the question I’m asking. If you found a school that would buy food from you, would you agree to sell it food and why?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Ah yes, it would be good if the school would buy. I know that my children would get fed. That would be better for me.

Socio-Dig: OK, how so?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Me, I agree if it’s a project that buys food from us to help in school. I believe that aid is for us. We would also like to sell with those people. Even at the best price because we know this is aid is for us.

Socio-Dig: OK. And now let’s say the school agrees to buy from you. How would you prefer to give that food. Would you prefer that you take it to the school or would it be necesary that the school come and get the food in your garden?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): No, the school would not come get the food in my garden. The school would organize and create a base in the area and people in the area would go and sell at the base.

Socio-Dig: OK. Is there anyone who would say something else?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Number 8.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Is it any kind of food? Or is it a certain kind of food, like millet?

Socio-Dig: Local food that everyone can eat, that’s what we’re looking for.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Something else I would ask. Is it us alone who will produce this food or will we get help so that we can produce more food?

Socio-Dig: OK. To give you an answer, what you’re looking for right now is that they give you help, but you produce food in your garden and they could buy it from you.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Eh, they are not going to give us aid?

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. Well, I still have a couple of little questions. I’m almost done. For the parents who have children in the program, what importance to you does having local versus imported food have?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): We will always prefer local food because it’s us who produce it with our own hands. We already said this before, it doesn’t have any chemicals in it. When the children eat it, they could get sick. When they take a local product with no chemicals in it, us, especialy around here, we do not put any fertilizer or anything like that in it. Local food is best for us. That’s what the children eat.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Another thing, it helps us farmers too when they eat local. They’ll buy from us and that brings some money into the household.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): One observation I made is that I saw the trouble that BND must go through to find the fresh produce. Because me, personally, at the Blank-School-1,” the first time, well, you know that we felt that an oversight committee could manage the canteen. We sent two representatives of the committee to purchase. When they arrived, after two markets, let me see if I can say it the way they said it, they said it was a humiliation. Because when they got there, because they must take the scale to weigh things, they didn’t find everything at once. They could buy all from a single vendor. And as soon as the vendor sees that you’re weighing the produce, she’s already passed the word and every other vendor is impossible. And the money isn’t enough.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): … 1 talked about the humiliation that his people suffered, my first experience was in the market. … I went with my scale. I put it at the house of a friend. And I bought and weighed, bought and weighed. But when I looked, I saw that it wasn’t good like that. We found people from Payan itself. We called them to come sit with us and make a contract. We said, here is so many kilos we need of each product. We did that despite that the little bit of money they gave us wasn’t enough. We created a way that we could find the things….

***

Socio-Dig: How would they give you money? How would they manage it? Did you have a receipt that you would give when you bought? Was there an exact amount of money they gave you? Was it before you bought that they gave you money or after?

Public: Before we bought.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): Before we bought they gave us money. Us, we didn’t have any trouble getting people to sign. Because the people who brought it to me, I gave them the receipts, they signed them and gave them back to me. After that, when we arrived, we gave them back and when they finished going over them they gave us money again. That’s how it was done.

#PILOT PROGRAM PURCHASING EXPERIENCE

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): I say hello to everyone, the representatives of WFP. Well, I represent “Blank-School-1.” I am “Number 4”. To respond directly to the question that you asked, it is indeed a pilot project. All pilot projects can end. It depends on how the project goes. In my view, it was a good experiment because as they say, even in failing you learn. It was good that they tried the pilot project no matter what. Also, when we arrived at the market we made a lot of observations. One observation I made is that I saw the trouble that BND must go through to find the fresh produce. Because me, personally, at the Blank-School-1,” the first time, well, you know that we felt that an oversight committee could manage the canteen. We sent two representatives of the committee to purchase. When they arrived, after two markets, let me see if I can say it the way they said it, they said it was a humiliation. Because when they got there, because they must take the scale to weigh things, they didn’t find everything at once. They could buy all from a single vendor. And as soon as the vendor sees that you’re weighing the produce, she’s already passed the word and every other vendor is impossible. And the money isn’t enough. And the way things are, they go up and down. Sometimes there is abundance, sometimes there is not an abundance. Well, at the time we went to buy it could be a time when a lot of produce is finished, well, the price….Well, times like that I’m obliged to go … suffer. Finally, I had to work only the second week of September. The third person who did it, he came and asked, ‘director, do me a favor and do not send me to the market again to get humiliated’ etcetera. OK, so when I sent the fourth person the last week, he came and said, ‘ahh, my good friend, you know the misery I’m going through because there are products you can’t find and secondly, they’re expensive and the money, it’s not enough for the children we have, it doesn’t make it. Well, I already had talked to BND and told them that for the month of October they did not need to give Blank-School-1 money. They could give ROPANIP the money to continue buying. Then, unfortunately, we the had the hurricane. [laughs].

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): I am number 3 from Blank. It was a beautiful experience for us with the pilot project. [a bird is singing loudly]. I was going to the market every Sunday. [noise of a motorcycle and singing bird]. I would go to the top of the mountain to Javel where they produce, where the source of the stuff is. I would find the produce and some money would be left over. Because down here, they sell for more than up there. Hmm. But I ran into some difficulties because the peasants don’t want to sign for you. Because you must verify the things, you get it approved by the people who sell to you [BND required the school purchasers to have sellers sign receipts]. Well, if it were for that you sell, you can just leave the stuff. That caused a lot of problems. After that, I found it difficult to continue because I was going to go to University. I go each Saturday and each Sunday. The person on the committee who could go in my place, he doesn’t know how to write to make the receipts [he’s illiterate]. Now, he could go and manage the money, but the other person won’t go, especially on Sunday because he’s part of the ministry at the church… The school chores [buying the food] are difficult to get done on Sunday, he wouldn’t have time. That’s what made me stop in October and the hurricane came and stopped everything too. Now they send the produce to me. That’s how things went. But it was a beautiful experience for me, except that there was produce that, like the director said, were difficult to find. I would replace them by the lot. Some were really expensive too, like yam. There are times where yams are more expensive than other times. It was a beautiful experience. [Noise of a truck coming from afar]. That’s what made some people already rent a storage depot? But I couldn’t continue.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): I am number one of Blank-School-2. Well, I salute my representatives too. Just as Director Blank-1 talked about the humiliation that his people suffered, my first experience was in the market. It was me and someone else on the committee. I went with my scale. I put it at the house of a friend. And I bought and weighed, bought and weighed. But when I looked, I saw that it wasn’t good like that. We found people from Payan itself. We called them to come sit with us and make a contract. We said, here is so many kilos we need of each product. We did that despite that the little bit of money they gave us wasn’t enough. We created a way that we could find the things…. We gave money for the moto, and we made arrangements, and they brought the produce to us. They brought the produce and we gave him the money right there. The money they gave us wasn’t enough. so we put some of our own money on it to pay for gas for them to bring the produce to us. That’s what we did. But in the end, it wasn’t us who left the program. It was the hurricane that made us stop. You understand. They had stopped bringing us the produce. And when they did that I saw it was good because when they brought it, there used to be some produce that was rotten. Especially the eggplant, they would rot with us. We told them when to bring it. They brought it every Monday. They brought it to us, and after that we put it somewhere. But when they buy it they would have it for as long as 5 or 6 days. Yes! On the ground, before we got it. I told someone this. I told the woman this, and she told me that it was because they didn’t find it around her. They would go and get it all the way on the other side. They told me would go and get them in Port-au-Prince, and that’s what made them go through so much that they would rot. That’s the way it was.

#ASSOCIATIONS

Socio-Dig: Is there no association of women around here?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  They had a chicken farm. You know, FONKOZE was here and they came and did something with them. They loaned them…

Socio-Dig: Is there no association of women around here?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  They had a chicken farm. You know, FONKOZE was here and they came and did something with them. They loaned them…

[Telephone rings]

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): The director offered it to me. I told him no, I don’t like it.

Socio-Dig: You don’t like it?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Every time there’s a meeting, the women go. And every time they take some money to give FONKOZE. The director offered me. At that time, I had a baby, I said no, I’m not taking the littlest thing because I don’t like it. If I have 50 goud I made, then with that 50 goud I’m not going to give it to someone else. If I lose, I lose; if I win, I win by myself.

Socio-Dig:  Did you tell FONKOZE that it’s a headache?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Aaa (laughs) A headache.

***

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Yes, we’re part of an association.

Socio-Dig: How does that work?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Well, the association is made up of planters. Because it’s made of up planters, we work in agriculture, that’s what we do. And we have meetings every month so that we can exchange ideas to see how we can change the life of the planters. Even though we can’t do it alone, with regard to what we’re looking for, I hope that WFP comes too because they ask for planters and we are an organization of planters. [With their help] Perhaps tomorrow we can accomplish more.

[20 minutes]

Socio-Dig: OK, when you say that you’re an organization of planters, does that mean you’re registered? Did you go to the mayor’s office and register? You have papers? Or is it just some farmers who get together and help one another and refer to yourselves as an organization?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Well, we are not yet registered. We’re in process. That means we’ve prepared the papers and afterward we’re going to the mayor’s office and after we finish with the mayor’s we’re going to the Ministry of Social Affairs. But we’re preparing, we’re working on it.

Socio-Dig: OK. Do you have another organization that is helping you, that helps you find tools, credit? For example an association. Do they buy your harvests? Do you get together and sell all your crops? Anyone can respond.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): It’s like you say. When we produce, us small farmers, it almost doesn’t help us at all. It’s the big land owner who makes the money, you understand. Because he invested his money in us, we give it to him the way you said there. Do we sell by the mammit or in bulk you asked. Well, it’s the big investor who can sell in bulk because we don’t have time. For us we have 10, 15 mamit to go sell. It’s the big man who can sell in bulk.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #6 (Male; 68 years of age; no Children; Farmer; No school): Everything we used to do, we used to do verbal. It’s only now that we have formed this little organization that we would know how to manage these things. Because it’s this man Mr. Dessalines, who gave us the idea to form a group. We made a group so that we can become bigger together, so that we can organize ourselves.

Socio-Dig: OK. Yes, Mr. Dessalines.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): It’s like that because I was bothered when I look and saw that in the community…. There is an organization of fishers. There’s another social organizatiion, and I see that planters, I felt that it’s them who work to give us food…. who send food to the city to give to the big senators. Even the president eats some. I see that they don’t do anything to help us. Well, I took the initiative, I found some people who shared the same idea and we got together and created an organization. We put together an organization and every 1st of May we sit down together and exchange ideas. Well, I can say that it’s a day of recreation for us because we enjoy eachother. We talk about farming, how we’ll change things, we exchange ideas, we don’t let the day pass unnoticed because 1st of May we call an agricultural worker’s holiday. Those of us in the domain, we can’t let the day pass. It’s along those lines that we get together. Now, we’re preparing the papers that will make us legal so the State will recognize us. After that, when the State knows who we are, we can make ourselves better known. Why can’t we make ourselves better known now? Because the mayor could come and give us a problem. We don’t want a problem with the law because we’re not yet legal. But we’re working on all the papers. All that remains is for us to go to the Mayor’s office and legalize them.

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you. As farmers do you think that a program like this could make things better. For example, problems that you have at the moment, the program costs too much. It costs too much money to give the children food. They’re looking for a way to give the children more food, but that costs less. That means that now, where they buy the food is on the market, they can go to the market in Fon de Neg. Is there another way that WFP and BND could buy the food locally? A way that would cost them less money so that they could feed more children? What advice, as planters, would you give them?

Socio-Dig: Yes. Number 4.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): First off, we would need a pump. Secondly, we would need a tractor available so that we can work.

Socio-Dig: OK, you need a pump to work the land. That would do what? What would you give WFP and the program?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): Well, eh, we’re telling you what we need. Now it’s the program that can go and tell…

Socio-Dig: What would you offer the program that you’re saying if they give you this. You, what would you offer the program?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): Well, when we harvest, we’re going to share what we bring in with WFP to pay them back.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #5 (Male; 37 years of age; 4 Children; No school; Farmer): Yes, what the man said is good, because us, what makes us lack produce is that we lack stucture. For example, every year we sit there, it’s when the rain falls that we can cultivate. If the rain doesn’t fall all year round, we don’t plant all year. But if we had a system to irrigate, that means that we would not have to wait for the rain to fall. We would always have produce. And if WFP facilitated us finding that means, as the man just said, a plow to turn the soil for us, and an agricultural office for us to find seeds when we needed them to plant, with the pump to irrigate, now, not only would we find an adequate amount for our families and ourselves, but we could help WFP too.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. I want to return to the topic…. Is there no one here who would add something more? Everything you say is important. I know that number five, you were going to say something. Number five. Come closer, I want to hear you!

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): [Laughs] Yes, well, me, I see that regarding planting, if like we had a pump for real it would be good for us, because when the rain doesn’t fall we would still find water to do everything for us to live.

***

Socio-Dig: Since you are in an association, let’s talk about the association. In your opinion, is this something that’s serious. What I mean is that when the association gets some aid, does everyone get aid? Number four.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): Yes, for me, it’s the opposite. You said how if WFP invested in farmers it is going to recuperate the money it invested. Should each individual sell theirs. The way I see it, it would not be each person, it would be the president of the organization. You understand. Immediately, if you know that you need 50 mammit of millet from the organization, it’s the president who knows if it’s 2 mamit that he’ll take from you. Will the 2 mammit add up to 50 mammit that you’re asking for. This means that the individual doesn’t need to sell their produce. It’s the president. It’s the same as with a church that has a pastor. It’s the pastor who knows what he’s doing in his church, isn’t it? It’s the same for the association and the president. It’s him we put our trust in. All that comes, should come to him. Everyone will participate.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you very much. I don’t know if you have any questions. I feel that I’m finished with my questions.

#WANTING AID

Socio-Dig: Yes, well, you do this work, right? You work in your garden, right?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): We work, but if we had aid we could produce more.

Socio-Dig: Yes, I understand what you’re saying.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): And when 3 people are working somewhere or you have somewhere 10 people are working, they produce more.

Socio-Dig: Um, yes, I understand what you are saying.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): And sometimes there are people who work with his own strength, he doesn’t have the means to produce much. There are people who can hire workers, there are people who have to do it themselves. We must look at this, there are people who do not have enough means to sell, and they must have something for the household. But if we had some help, he could participate too!

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you. Let me ask you a question too.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Yes, I’m listening. I’ll respond.

Public: [laughter]

Socio-Dig: In your opinion do you think it would be better that they put several farmers to work together to buy from them or do you think it would be something that each farmer could do alone, that they buy from each individual farmer?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): No, it can’t be done like that. They’ll have a storage place where they will buy. The person responsible for purchasing will have somewhere they go to sell. They’ll know what day that people come to buy, that when they’ll go sell. But they can’t go sell in small quantities. They’ll be a day to sell. The person can’t come and buy retail. At the least they will designate someone to be responsible for buying.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. Is there anyone else who would like to add anything?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): What I said you didn’t add. Tell me, it was no good?

Socio-Dig: O no, me, no.

Public: No, it’s OK ma’m, it’s OK. It’s good, there’s no problem.

Socio-Dig: What he said was good, there’s no problem. What you said is good Papi. What we’re doing here is looking for knowledge. We’re trying to find out if there was a program… I don’t know, we’re a little behind. If WFP has a canteen around here you might know. There are several schools that give children food. But we’re just trying to understand what possibilities there are to buy food from farmers, if that’s better, will it cost the program less money if they could buy closer to the school.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Yes, and for the program to have food, you need to work a lot.

Socio-Dig: Um, um.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): For the program to have food, there must be a lot of work. There must be people who can care for the gardens so the weeds don’t take them over. Sometimes people take a garden, they get weak on the road, the way it should yield doesn’t happen like that. It’s his own little strength, that’s all he’s got. But if he had some money in hand to pay workers, now the garden wouldn’t be lost.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. Now, for people who know the canteens, I would like to ask you a question. In your opinion, in what way do you think it would be best for the children to get fed at a low price?

Socio-Dig: Number 4.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Buy at a low price?

Socio-Dig: Yes, buy at low price, how is that done?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): Yes, one helps the other… If a person finds some aid for his garden, he wouldn’t ask if a mammit of rice sells for 15 dola. He’s gotta sell at the best price because he remembers that the buyer helped him. But if they didn’t help him, a mammit of millet sells for 15 dola. It’s you who was struggling, you sold your little goat to make a little garden. You remember your expenses. You have to make up for them. If it’s 15 dola you stick to the 15 dola. But if the person helped you, you have to remember that the person helped you. When the person comes to you, you have to help them too. But if you didn’t get help, it’s me who struggled alone and I remember I sold my little goat so I could save the garden….

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #1 (Male; 67 years of age; 2 Children; 6th grade; Farmer): If you are afraid that they are going to correct your notebook, you don’t know how to read.

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you Number 1. Is there anyone else who would like to add something? Number 8.

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): Yes.

Socio-Dig: You’re a school teacher, correct? Does your school have a canteen?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): The best way for you to buy food at a low price, is the way that he said a little while ago. WFP would enter with some aid. Especially with aid for the farmer. That means we would find some means to plant. An agricultural extension service. When we needed something we could borrow omney. Or they could give us something to go plant. Afterward we say, ‘here is a quantity for us to return to the office, we have no problem. Or give us seeds to plant. They can tax us a little. They can tell us at what price they are going to buy them from us. That’s the only way you can buy them at a better price. But if it is us with our own pump of strength and with our own pump of money that we invest in the land, hey, we’ll have to sell it at market price. We can’t take anything off, we can’t give a rebate.

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): A sponsor. Me, for example, I took Blank-School. It’s one reason we have almost 200 and how many students. The students reduce in number, little by little. We don’t have neither PSUGO nor EPT, which means that it’s the parents. The pig cooks in its own fat. Imagine, for you to have a school that has 100 and how many children in it and only 85 come to school and the rest aren’t there because they can’t pay the 2,000 goud for the year, which has all the costs included. And that’s all we have to do everything we have to do, to pay the teachers… So that means it’s a school that you’re forcing to happen, it’s by force.

#THE SWEET & SALTY DILEMMA

#SALT-FOOD

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). I wouldn’t want them to stop giving salt-food meals.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). No, cooked salt-food is best for children.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Salt-food is better for them. Salt is salt, sweet is sweet. If it was both they gave them, they would give the salt-food in the morning and the salt-food after. But if it’s [only] sweet food, it’s not good for them.

***

Public Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Yes, yes, yes, something salty first. Salt-food is the most important thing.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). Salt-food, I see it is much better than sweet-food.

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #6: (male; 35 years old; farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; No children in the program).… When the child eats salt food it is better for them. Often, they may give children a salt cracker. They can prepare a plate of boiling plantains with sauce. The boiling plantain is even better than the bananas. Who knows, maybe they will give Chiko [industrial processed cheese snack]. So, the hot meal, it is more important, more important.

***

Socio-Dig: Fried dough, OK. What do you prefer to eat most, sweet or salty food?

Children: Salty food

Socio-Dig: Number 3 why do you prefer salty food, go ahead you can talk.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): For me not to have upset stomach.

Socio-Dig: Not to have upset stomach.

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Me, the reason I prefer to eat salty food, if I eat something sweet it will upset my stomach.

Socio-Dig: OK your stomach hurts when you eat?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: Something sweet?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade):  Yes

***

Socio-Dig: OK, thank you. A question I would like to ask, what do you most like to eat, salt-food or sweet-food?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade):  Salt-Food.

Socio-Dig: Salt-Food, why?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Because it gives me strength. Sweet food can give you any kind of bad sickness.

Socio-Dig: OK, any kind of bad sickness, like what?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Well, like diabetes.

Socio-Dig: Like diabetes. OK. Hmm.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): It can give you a stomachache. Sometimes. If you haven’t yet eaten something salty in the morning, you eat something sweet and it can give you a stomachache.

Socio-Dig: It can give you a stomachache. That means that you prefer…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Salt-food.

Socio-Dig: You prefer something salty in the morning?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: OK,

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): When you have not yet eaten something salty, you go and eat something sweet and it can give you a toothache. I prefer salt-food.

***

#SWEET-FOOD AND WORMS

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). Sometimes, when you give children sweet-food in the morning, it causes worms to rise up into their chest. Children can have a stomachache. It makes them produce mucous and stomach acids. Their stomach can hurt. They produce phlegm and acids because the sweet-food upsets their stomach.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program) …. When you give children sweet-food it will give them worms. If they wake up in the morning and you give them sweet-food, it’s not good for them….

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). But if it’s something sweet you give him every day it’s going to produce worms in his stomache and he’s going to have a stomachache. And he could be in school and he can’t study, he can’t stand up, his stomach hurts.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4: Sweet and salty are not the same. It can’t be good for children to eat something sweet.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #7: (Female; 53 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 6 children; 2 children in program). Eh pineapple is very fragile. If the child has worms and the child eats it, he is going to get sick….

***

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #6: (male; 35 years old; farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; No children in the program). I will say that when the child has a plate of food, I still think it is better because when you prepare the cold food… you may give the child cookies maybe something like a sweet roll and banana. Some children will get worms because of that. Sweet is not good for them.

***

Public: Food that is salty is better. Salty food is better.

Socio-Dig: Things that are salty are better, why? Number 5.

Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerçant and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). So that worms don’t rise his chest.

***

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Those parents might not have anything to give the children in the morning. She washes the child, puts on her uniform, and sends her to school, says, ‘when you get home, I’ll have something to feed you.’  At the same time, there are parents who make a lunch box for their children to take to school. All parents don’t have the same resources. Well, when a child eats something sweet at school, it’s not good for him. You understand?

Socio-Dig: Uh huh.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): It’s not good for him. A child needs to eat something salty. Even though they might not eat much, it helps with the worms in his chest.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Corn meal with green, you understand. You understand, you could make a corn meal with greens in the morning for the children. But, like for you to give juice, and bread and peanut butter. Because there is something called worms and not all parents have the same resources to give their children something in the morning.

***

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Why is it that I eat more salty food? If I eat … rather if I eat sweet food I would be full of worms. I would rather eat salty food instead of sweets in the morning.

***

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #5: (Female; 10 years-old; 5the grade):  Before you go eat something sweet, you are supposed to eat something salty first. Because when you eat something sweet in the morning it can give you worms, make your stomach hurt. Me, I’m a person who before I come to school can’t eat something sweet. If I eat something sweet, I’ll vomit that salt-food I ate before.

Socio-Dig: OK, number one

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #3 (Male; 13 years-old; 5the grade): Speak louder.

Socio-Dig: What do you like more, salt or sweet food?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #1 (Female; 11 years-old; 5th grade): Salt-food.

***

Socio-Dig: What if they were to give you a sweet, like a cookie, something in place of a hot meal, if they said they were going to give you something like that, what would you choose?

Children:  The hot meal, the hot meal. The hot meal would be better.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  Because when you finish eating, that’s when you take dessert.

Socio-Dig: It’s when you finish eating that you take dessert?

Children: Yesss.

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Like if we were to finish eating and go into the classroom and they brought us cookies and gave them to us, we would take them. But it’s when you’ve finished eating that you take dessert.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Like before too, before they give us hot food they could give us something salty, we would take it too. We would take it too, like cheese puffs, salt crackers, Guayrina.

Socio-Dig: Cheese puffs, OK. You think that cheese puffs have a lot of vitamins in them?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Cheese puffs do not have vitamins in them because it’s something light.

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #4 (Male; 13 years-old; 4th grade):  It’s something like straw.

Socio-Dig: OK. If they gave you cheese puffs…

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): It would kill a worm no matter what.

Socio-Dig: It would kill a worm no matter what.  In the place of hot food, you would accept cheese puffs?

Children: No.

#REFUSALS TO FEED SWEET-FOOD

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). For example, if it was sugar clusters they started to give, and they took away the salt-food, I couldn’t participate. The reason is that my daughter always has a stomachache. Often she has a stomachache. She’s always complaining her stomach hurts. That’s why it would not be good for me. But in every way, in every manner, I don’t believe they’ll take away the salt-food. They’ll keep it!

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). In my opinion, I have two children in the program, it would not be good for me personally. Mine wouldn’t eat anything at all. I would rather they let me know so that I can give them something instead. Maybe the one I have in the National school, he’s a boy and maybe he’d eat it. But I have two girls and they would not eat anything sweet at all, not at all.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; #-9 (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program): For me, I think the hot plate is better. Especially in my school. In my class there are some children who are never satisfied with what we give to them. They used to say: ‘aah that’s not tasty enough.’ Despite the fact the cold plate has more vitamins, they are not going to see it that way. They will focus more on the full belly. They will focus more on that.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). The lady says the cold plate will bring more vitamins. I don’t see that. Don’t forget that I will have to get respect for the diet. For me, In this way I believe in, eh, giving a hot plate to the children is better. For the children it’s easier for them to eat a mango. The child passes by his father’s yard and finds an Abrigo (a type of fruit) and eats it. Do you understand? The child can find a pineapple in his father’s garden. But when children are at school, they are more interested in the hot food. I think it would be better. There is a possibility, maybe one day in the week, they could modify it in order to give something different to the children. That would not be a problem. But the hot plate would be better.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. And for example, if we would say that in the place of hot cooked food we would like to give them something else, what would you find acceptable, as parents?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): We would never agree. It’s a canteen their giving, they’ll continue to give the cooked food.

Socio-Dig: They’ll continue to give the canteen?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): They’ll continue to give the canteen.

Public: What doesn’t take more time is porridge. Or a porridge that doesn’t’ take a lot of time. But if there is no porridge in the canteen, the canteen can continue to function because the children are already accustomed to it. You know, it’s salt-food. It’s salt-food, it’s good. Hmmm, it’s good. Yes, they are already accustomed to it.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Well, hmm, we haven’t thought about something else to give as food other than the canteen. And those other who know if the canteen is not good for them, it’s them who can know what to give. Us, we can’t say.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). … there is another thing. When the children come to school, the first area they look at is the kitchen. If they see there is no fire you can see they are discouraged. When the food is being cooked at the school I think it’s better.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program)… The school, like we are saying, the smoke is rising up, every now and then you look at it, there is hope.

***

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #9: (male; 22 years old, Farmer, Student; 10th grade; None children; No children in the program). If it is prepared locally, it is still a problem. Hot meals are more significant. With the cold food, remember that cholera is still out there.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Little cookie or something less, like a hard candy, or something else. It wouldn’t be good, like a cookie. A little sweet cookie. Because I believe that in the morning, for them not to tire themselves. The only thing is if I made some coffee. But if it were something like porridge, they wouldn’t drink it. They would say, ‘Mama, it will make my stomach hurt.’ They won’t drink it. They don’t like it.

#SOLUTIONS TO THE SWEET & SALTY DILEMMA

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Yes, my grandmother told me this, mainly it is about sweet liquid. Sometimes they make remedies to prevent you from getting sick when you are eating sweets. They boil leaves mixed together. It is a tea that will help your chest. It is bad to take sweets before eating anything salty. You will need to drink something salty ahead.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Because if you give a child something sweet, [you have to give something else as well]. You could have 2 eggs you boil and give the child to eat. You put a little salt [in the child], and if the worms have begu­­­n to rise, it will settle them. After that, he could eat a banana and bread with peanut butter, and it might not cause any problems.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Salt is salt, sweet is sweet. If it was both they gave them, they would give the salt-food in the morning and the salt-food after. But if it’s [only] sweet food, it’s not good for them.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). …But we can’t [only] give them sugar clusters. Even if they changed the food and gave them sugar clusters, they must have something with salt too.

***

Socio-Dig: So that worms don’t rise his chest?

Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerçant; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). We had a canteen already. They used to give the children crackers, salted crackers.

Socio-Dig: That was a good thing.

Public: Yes. They used to give them early.

Socio-Dig: They gave them early? After that, did they give anything else? Or was it only that?

Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerçant and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). Yes, they used to give food. They gave potato porridge. They passed each class and they gave the children crackers.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Since when they give you something it’s a gift they’re making, it’s the same as them giving you something for free. [Laughs]. People make a gift of what they want. Give someone a knock in the head with a stick, it’s something they’re giving [laughs]. If they’re making a gift, then you’re obliged to get up early and make some medicinal salt-food to give the children [to deal with the problem]. Rather than not get anything at all, I’d rather get up early and boil some leaves [to make a minimal type of salt-food] [Laughs]. When he comes home from school he’ll eat [salt-food]. They’re giving you the food.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Wait until they give you zero [nothing at all]

Public: Laughter

Socio-Dig: If they’re giving it away, you’ll take it.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Oh, they’re give it to you, eh.

Public: Laughter

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Rather than get zero, I’d rather get one [laughs].

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Even when it’ something sweet, it gives the child vitamins. But you can’t give something sweet every day. If it’s something you’re feeding in the morning, you have to have variety. You can’t give a sugar cluster every day. You understand.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). It’s this issue of salt vs. sweet-food. Is it true? [laughs]. That’s what I would like to know.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Public: To encourage the children in the morning, you could give them some cassava with peanut butter. Yes, the cassava must have peanut butter on it.  A piece of bread with peanut butter and something to drink afterward.  It would be salty, and after that there is nothing sweet to give.

***

Socio-Dig: Do you think it would be a problem if they give the children something sweet to eat in the morning?

Unidentified Participant: Sweet food? Sweet food is not too good for the children. They should not give it to them every day. They can’t give it to them every day. But at times they can give it to them, The sweet food will not affect them, They can give it to them in the morning.

Socio-Dig: If they were to serve sweet today and hot/salt tomorrow, would that be a problem?

[Many participants talking]

Unidentified participant: No, it is not a problem it would not be a problem,  The children are accustomed to eat sweet food at their homes.  They are given porridge at home.

#ALTERNATIVE FOODS

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Public: What doesn’t take more time is porridge. Or a porridge that doesn’t’ take a lot of time…

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Like we never think like that. To be able, they could give them a glass of milk every morning. But if I say that I agree with that, other people could not agree…

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). … You could have chosen to add a glass of milk. Bread, we can find those things easily. If what is easier is to give all the children a glass of milk with bread, the cooks will not complain about salary any more. Myself, these foods would be even more important.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). But me, what you say, for me, I agree. Food is given for 5 days, 5 days, and then 2 days we don’t’ make food. We give something else in its place. Would it still be us who gave it to them or would someone else come and give it to them?

Socio-Dig: Hm. No, no. That could still be the responsibility of the cooks.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). Well, ok, we have no problem.

Socio-Dig: That’s our proposition. It is a proposition we ask without thinking.

Public: Yes, yes, it would be good. It would be good to give buttered cassava bread with a glass of milk. It would be very good.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). We are the cooks. It’s WFP who would give it to us. That’s good, we accept it. We can say that we would accept it. But we don’t know what the director would say.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). He could eat a banana in the morning if he eats an egg. He eats a banana and it won’t hurt him at all because it’s got vitamins. But to give a child sugar water. Juice comes after. People don’t drink juice without eating. You have to eat to drink juice. And what I see, there’s porridge that the child can drink and it won’t do anything [bad] to him. Me, since I was a child, I get bad gas. It’s in my chest. You see me, but if I get up in the morning, I have to eat something salty first. If not, I have to drink a little water. When I come home I eat something salty. After that I can eat something sweet. Because if I take something sweet, it burns my chest. I won’t feel good. I think that children can be like that too.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Even my children, like Soursop [fruit], as soon as it’s ripe they eat any size. They eat it any way they can. One eats one, two eat one. They eat it until they can’t stand up. Sometimes they want to eat sweet oranges like that. But there aren’t that many of them. You can find a few. But common oranges, they eat however many they want, whenever they want.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program).  I think that they could give them some porridge. The best in the place of salt-food would be oatmeal. I think that oatmeal could best take the place of salt-food.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). To give children in the morning it would have to be a good orange, if not a banana. Because that’s local fruit. And perhaps you could give children a preserve with bread. Because that’s what I see that’s closest for them to give children. You see a child, you can give him a good mango either in the morning on the evening… You can give him a mango for breakfast, you understand. It depends on the child.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees; Public: Something salty. Sweet things are no good. You can fry an egg and give it to the child with a piece of bread. Or if there is food, you get up early and you make a little white corn meal and give it to the child with some juice to go to school. Or a little plantain, when we had plantains.

***

Socio-Dig: …A cold entree could be a palm fruit, it could have bananas, pineapples, much more.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Bread and peanut butter.

Socio-Dig: Bread and peanut butter, cassava! Exactly!

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Well now, in the sugar cluster category, there are several types. If it’s the morning, you can’t only give a child a sugar cluster. You can give him a sugar cluster when he goes to school in the morning. You can get up and make a porridge or give him a banana with bread without a problem. But you can’t give something sweet every day. If you give him something it should be something that really has vitamins.

***

Socio-Dig: OK. Since the cooks do not earn a salary, let’s say they have another choice. Now what do you think is going to happen…. What do you think if the program could give another person who’s not inside, for example a person who could make food in the school. For example, there are vendors around here who could make food, make fried dough or something like that. They could give a vendor the responsibility of making food and taking it to the school for the children. What do you think of that?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Well, we don’t know.

Socio-Dig: No, it’s what do you think? What do you think?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Where will you find the food? We’re talking about giving them the same food?

Socio-Dig: Yes, yes.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  People would make it at their house?

Socio-Dig: For example, let’s say that… Let’s offer several options. They give people food to make food and carry it to the school or they give people some money, the person is responsible for making food and bringing it.

Public: That’s nothing. It would not be good. Bringing it isn’t good.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): There are those who would make food and benefit, there are those who would eat the food (laughs).

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader):  There are those who cheat because they don’t get paid. Now if you go and give them the food to make at the house, even when they made money it wouldn’t be good, they would make a mess.

Socio-Dig: There would be a mess?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, there would be a mess.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): That means, while some people would not get paid, him, like the Teacher Alfred who oversees the school, even though he wasn’t making any money, he would have to keep an eye on the person. The person doesn’t get paid, myself I would not be responsible for making food. You understand? I’m not responsible for making it. But while the person isn’t making money, they’ll want to make a mess with the food. But when they know that someone higher up is keeping an eye on them, they won’t do just anything they want with the food.

Socio-Dig: And if it’s a person who is paid?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader):  If the person gets paid… …

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  I don’t know, I don’t know about people getting paid because…

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): If it’s someone who gets paid and she did not do the job well, they would fire her and put someone else in her place.

Socio-Dig: OK. If you added that you had children, that you had children in the program, you have children. What food would you add that they don’t have?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): The food that I would add?

Socio-Dig: Yes.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader):  Corn meal, we don’t have corn meal.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader):  Millet, some plantains.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Millet, dumplings, like when they make stew, they could give some wheat dumplings, corn meal, cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is a food that’s very good for children. A long time ago they used to have a canteen that gave cracked wheat. We had a priest named Father Machand who used to come up here. It was a flour called “Bèdèkfòw”. It was a cracked wheat that they gave at the canteen.  Cracked wheat is important and the flour too. Flour “Bèdèkfòy”, since we don’t see it anymore, now it would be very important.  When they make stew with bean sauce you could make dumplings with “Bèdèkfòy” and put it in the stew you give the children.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): That’s what makes the children not like stew, because of the flour, it doesn’t have dumplings in it.

Socio-Dig: It doesn’t have flour in it?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Because there’s no money. You must buy 2 or 3 mamit of flour…

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Me, what I would add.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): But because here is no money…

[30 Minutes]

You don’t make it. It’s just the little bit they send us, that what you make for the children.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Me, what I would add to the food is cracked wheat flour.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat flour?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, because cracked wheat is important.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Corn meal too.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Corn meal too.

Socio-Dig: OK. Now if you would imagine that, for them to give all the children the food they eat, that costs money. Even if… It costs a lot, it’s expensive, it costs money. How do you think that the program can continue, by what means?  If today they said, OK, things are too expensive, we can’t continue to pay, we must go. But you, you would like the program to continue. What? What food? How could they buy food to supply the program in a way that costs less money than it costs now?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): We would not make cooked food.

Socio-Dig: Anything you say to me, I’m looking for options. What do you think would cost less money?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): I would give children peanut butter and cassava, and a glass of milk and a banana. That would hold the children.

Socio-Dig: OK, you don’t have anything else to say? What do you think would cost less money to make for the children?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Well you know, if you make food it’s going to cost money. No matter what food you make, it costs money. So, I don’t know what I can say. At least they could give the children some bread and peanut butter and some juice in the morning.  Local juice, natural juice.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): They said they would give some milk every Thursday. But they never made that, not one day.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): And as for something sweet, there are parents who make something and give it to children in the morning. But in the same way, there are parents who send their children to school without feeding them anything. You understand what I’m saying?

Socio-Dig: I understand what you’re saying.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Those parents might not have anything to give the children in the morning. She washes the child, puts on her uniform, and sends her to school, says, ‘when you get home, I’ll have something to feed you.’  At the same time, there are parents who make a lunch box for their children to take to school. All parents don’t have the same resources. Well, when a child eats something sweet at school, it’s not good for him. You understand?

Socio-Dig: Uh huh.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): It’s not good for him. A child needs to eat something salty. Even though they might not eat much, it helps with the worms in his chest.

Socio-Dig: OK, for example, something salty that does not cost much money, what could that be?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Despite, you could make some white cracked wheat for the children, you understand, make some white wheat or some white corn meal, some good corn….

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Corn meal with greens.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Corn meal with green, you understand. You understand, you could make a corn meal with greens in the morning for the children. But, like for you to give juice, and bread and peanut butter. Because there is something called worms and not all parents have the same resources to give their children something in the morning.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Public: To encourage the children in the morning, you could give them some cassava with peanut butter. Yes, the cassava must have peanut butter on it.  A piece of bread with peanut butter and something to drink afterward.  It would be salty, and after that there is nothing sweet to give.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Cassava is good for the children’s memory.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):  Yes, cassava is always good.

Socio-Dig: They don’t make cassava around here?

Public: No, no, we don’t make it.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): You know, manioc crops are almost wiped out. But we can buy it in Miragoane. They have a lot in Miragoane.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): You can find a lot in Miragoane, but enough to feed all the children in every school, that would be difficult.

Socio-Dig: It would be difficult?

Public: Yes, La Gonav, you know, they bring a lot, they come from La Gonav with it.

Socio-Dig: OK, well, if you don’t have any more questions for me, I say thank you very much.

***

Socio-Dig: You have two. OK. The goal of the canteen is to give children food, local food. According to you, what food do you suppose they could give children that represents food you grow in your garden around here?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #8 (Male; 40 years of age; 3 Children; High school diploma; Teacher, Farmer): The food they should give children, we have rice, we don’t grow it right here but in the commune. We produce yam and I see they give them too in the canteen. Sweet potato we grow too. And millet too, albeit it’s a little destroyed at the moment, but they used to give millet in the canteen.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thank you. Is there anyone one else who would say something about local food they should give children?

Focus Group 13, All Male Farmers (Tamarin), Participant #4 (Male; 40 years of age; 5 Children; 8th grade; Farmer): What they should give is manioc, manioc.

Socio-Dig: Umm.

***

Socio-Dig:  OK. Now if they were to tell you that today you will get, for example, cooked food and tomorrow they will give you other non-cooked food. What type of non-cooked food would fill you up you would prefer? Number 3.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): To fill my belly, rice and pureed beans?

Socio-Dig: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): No, rice and pureed beans are cooked food. Non-cooked food?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Non-cooked food? They can give me milk with peanut butter and bread.

Socio-Dig: Milk with peanut butter and bread

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade):  Yes

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Milk, bread and eggs

Socio-Dig:  Milk, bread and eggs?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: OK you were saying?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): I would like milk with bread with… peanut butter with cassava and apple.

Socio-Dig: With apple OK, you know what is akasan (corn milk puree) do you drink akasan?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: You don’t like…. If they give you akasan in the school wouldn’t you like it?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: Why didn’t you mention akasan then?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Me I don’t like it

Socio-Dig: You don’t like akasan?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No

Socio-Dig: Really?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No

Socio-Dig: If they were to give you oatmeal, would you like oatmeal?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: You would prefer oatmeal?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Another thing I was going to say concerns the yams, the yams we have most around here and that all the other schools consume are yellow yams. We know that yellow yams aren’t in season yet. I think they begin in December and last until April, May, even in June we still have some. The yams we have now, that are beginning to be finished, are Guinea yams. It’s a yam that’s more expensive than yellow yams. I was asking myself, can we find something to replace the yams?

***

Socio-Dig: Why don’t you feed bananas or peanut clusters?

Unidentified Participant: It would be good, you’re right, but it would cost too much money?

Socio-Dig: It would cost a lot of money?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, especially the bananas.

Unidentified Participant: Can they replace one product with another? We were talking about the problems with manioc, could we replace manioc with plantains?

Socio-Dig: Aren’t plantains expensive?

Same Unidentified Participant: Plantains are expensive.

Another Unidentified Participant: That’s going to depend.

Same Unidentified Participant: Plantains are expensive, yes. But it depends what season it is.

Socio-Dig: Do you guys have the right to make changes like that in the system?

Same Unidentified Participant: I don’t think so, no.

Socio-Dig: Have you asked?

Same Unidentified Participant: He could ask that, he could ask that. It would be could good to replace one with the other.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): For me, we could replace manioc with sweet potatoes.

Socio-Dig: Would you find it all year round?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Sweet potatoes, there are always sweet potatoes. Manioc, right now there is no manioc.

Same Unidentified Participant: There are sweet potatoes and there are always plantains. We’re never out of sweet potatoes and plantains.

Socio-Dig: In your opinion, and given the problem with cooks, do you think that cooking food is the best and only way for you to feed the children every day?

Silence…

Unidentified Participant: That’s going to depend on your objective.

Socio-Dig: Couldn’t you give the children the same things that you feed them outside of school, a form of processed food like peanut clusters, coconut and corn meal mix, thinks like that, or boil something to feed them every day?

Public: Yes

Socio-Dig: Do you think it’s possible that it would be better to give them these things at school?

Unidentified Participant: Only that?

Socio-Dig: You could vary it because there are a lot of items. I was speaking to a woman who explained to me that with breadfruit alone you can make 21 different types of food?

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): To support what you’re saying, like bread, you can prepare something and put it on bread and then give the children something to drink afterward, that would satisfy them.

Socio-Dig: You’re talking about bread made with wheat flour?

Public: Yes

Socio-Dig 1: It’s not locally produced. Like it you were talking about cassava, or breadfruit or something else [those are local].

Socio-Dig 2: We don’t have anything predefined. We’re just a team of researchers trying to understand. You could have a product that we don’t know about. It’s in discussing that we can learn about it. We’re talking about salt-food, but you know there are lot of foods that get processed that are salt-food. In what category would you put cassava, salt or sweet?

Unidentified Participant: It can be both.

Socio-Dig: And chanmchanm?

Public: [laughter] Both

Socio-Dig 1: There could be other foods.

Socio-Dig 2: There are others. There are in the sense that there’s a proverb that says, “to kill two birds with one stone” or you spend some time inside the community and you note that there is some big potential that could allow the area to develop. A lot of the time we have the intelligence… [Buying local food for the school], it’s a big advantage for people who produce food, who transport food, who process it. For example, take coconut sugar clusters, people who make them are waiting, waiting all day to sell them for 200 goud or 250 goud profit. If she could sell the tablets she can survive, she can pay for her children to get to school, she can build a house, she can get by. But she doesn’t find a place to really sell them. With the school program, it would allow her to sell them faster. All this means people in the community could make more money.

That’s what makes you see… We were talking of bread. Everyone eats bread, everyone eats flour. But the program can help us with more movement… so that people can benefit. People would sell more. If we have more money moving, people can produce more, sell more, encourage farmers to produce more. They would prefer that it’s manioc, cassava bread, or even sweet bread. There are other things that are made from foods we produce. Where I live they have what they call ‘doukounou’ and they make it with manioc. There are different foods they make from manioc. What do they call that, ‘Galet’. Galet too you could make. All of these things we are accustomed to eating. All of us, we are Haitian. We know that they can eat these things. If we eat these things at our homes, it’s not a problem for the children to eat them in school too.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): I see that it would not be a problem if we could find those things, but we have such a problem collecting the money from the children already, how would be go about getting those things?

Socio-Dig: What do you mean?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): How would we go about finding those things to replace the other produce?

Socio-Dig: You’re talking about tablet [peanut, cashew, and coconut clusters] and things like that? We could buy them with the same money from the program.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): But is there enough?

Socio-Dig: How much money could a tablet cost?

Public: 10 goud, 10 goud, 5 goud

Socio-Dig: If I was in your place, as a teacher or school director who doesn’t have time, I would be thinking that it might be better if I didn’t have to deal with the canteen. I would do something else. I would have a merchant who sells bananas, tablet, and cassava sell me a quantity. Every day, I would give the children something different. The same way that someone was saying that when the children used to complain about being hungry he would buy something in front of the school, it’s a simple way to avoid problems with the cook and getting ingredients to cook the food. And what you buy in the community would help the economy.

Unidentified Participant: It would help get money circulating in the community.

Socio-Dig: That’s it, the idea is to get some money circulating!

Public: Yes, money circulating in the community.

Socio-Dig: Really, we don’t have anything to teach you. We’ve come to learn from you. That’s why we came to sit down with you and talk. We can better find a solution together because you live here, you know the system.

Silence

A participant laughs.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): For example, when I take the commune of Ti Rivye, it’s an area that has a lot of breadfruit. I think it’s the produce they make the most of. And there are multiple ways to prepare it. If we could try with breadfruit, what formula we can use to see how they would eat it? They don’t have to boil it or fry it.

Socio-Dig: You know some products they make with breadfruit? How do they make them?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): I have an idea, but I’d like to try some out. For example, when they have the breadfruit festival.

Socio-Dig: If they fry it in grease the children get more food than if they boil it.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): Yes. And they eat it boiled and they eat it fried. I believe they eat in every form, every form. Even flour. I don’t know.

Unidentified Participant: Yes, they make flour too.

Socio-Dig: They make flour with breadfruit?

Public: It takes time.

Unidentified Participant: It takes a lot of time because you must peel it, you must peel it, they must cut it into pieces, put it to dry in the sun before they pound it [in a mortar and pestle]. You understand. It takes time.

Socio-Dig: This work, it’s not you personally who does it?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): Yes, we can do it, we can do it, we can do it.

Socio-Dig: It’s not a particular person who processes it.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): If it’s a supplier who gives it to you, the supplier, we would pay them to do it, it would conserve better now because it’s a flour.

Socio-Dig: Could you find people to do that for you?

Unidentified participant: Well, since I have not yet seen where they do that, I haven’t seen people who do it. Like people who do it to sell or to do something else with it, sometimes you meet people who do it at their home because it’s something they have in their head… They do it, but not to sell because I’ve haven’t ever seen a place where they sell the flour.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): And everyone has it [breadfruit].

Socio-Dig: We would say that you have a lot of sweet potatoes too. What do you do with them all?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): It’s the same thing with breadfruit, people fry sweet potatoes the same way they fry bread fruit and they eat it the same way. They boil them. They roast them. The same as with bread fruit.

Socio-Dig: There is a person in Ti Rivye who told me that with breadfruit you can do more than boil breadfruit and put it on a plate to eat. You can make flour, juice, akra (fried sticks), patties, breadfruit balls, chips.

Unidentified Participant: Yes, they make all that with them.

Socio-Dig: They fry it, they make cookies, they make ponmket (heavy brown bread), they make cake, they make pizza, and they make jam with breadfruit. In all of those products, which one do you think could be used in the canteen?

Unidentified participant: Tells us all of them again.

Public: [laughter]

Socio-Dig: She told me they make juice, mashed breadfruit, fried sticks, patties, breadfruit, chips, fries, cookies, brown bread ponmket, cake, pizza, jam.

Unidentified Participant: And they boil it too.

Public: [laughter]

Socio-Dig: [laughs] We didn’t mention boiling because we all talked about that already. And it’s not a means of processing. The list I just cited was a list of processed foods. She told me that all those foods, with the exception of fried breadfruit, can last for a week.

Unidentified Participant: I think yes, I think that’s what she said…

Unidentified Participant: It really can make those things.

Socio-Dig: What do you think?

Unidentified Participant: Well, there’s one that can’t last a week. For example, Tonmtonm.

Socio-Dig: Yes, we know, there are some that can’t last a week.

Unidentified Participant: Tonmtonm is good for a single day.

Socio-Dig: But is there one that you see that we can use in the canteen? Like, we could choose one day per week, we don’t cook, and we give one of these foods?

Unidentified Participant: Ah, ok, I see what you mean, is there something we can give the children one day per week?

Several Unidentified Participants: Yes, for one day. We could give chips. And we could give juice.

Same Unidentified Participant: Now the question is who will process the food for us?

Socio-Dig: Someone in the community who’s accustomed to doing it. We already know that we could give children chips and juice.

Public: Yes, for one day, for one day.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): In my area, the only people I’m going to find is someone to fry breadfruit and tonmtonm. I won’t be able to find anyone for the rest of the products. Cake, chips, I won’t find anyone to do that.

Socio-Dig: Does everyone in the area eat tonmtonm?

Public: Not all children eat tonmtonm. I don’t eat it…. I don’t even know anyone who makes it.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): If it’s around my house, it’s already impossible. Except that I could take it from somewhere around here and carry it to my house, because where I live we don’t have breadfruit.

Socio-Dig: They don’t have yam where you live?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): No.

Unidentified Participant: We can’t make chips with plantains too?

Socio-Dig: What did you say you make with sweet potatoes?

Public: They fry them, they boil them, they make sweet potatoe bread with them.

Socio-Dig: You do that, I hadn’t heard of sweet potatoe bread.

Unidentified Participant: Ahh, something that’s delicious (laughs).

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): … I think they could find fresh fruit juice to replace it. I think it would be good for the children. The children could take a glass of juice in the morning with a sandwich or, I don’t know, something. And I would think it would be less expensive. And for the children, I think it would be better still. And if they tried it to see what happens, now we wouldn’t need wood or a cook, they could just come and give the children something and finish. There would be less problems for the school director, less problems for the committee, we wouldn’t have to deal with contracts for wood, complaining about wood every end of the year… I think that would allow us to move forward.

Socio-Dig: OK. That means that you think they would stop the cooked food completely or one day they could have cooked food and one day a sandwich and juice?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): Yes, that’s it, that’s what I was saying, that’s what I was saying. To make things better.

Socio-Dig: OK, thanks!

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): They could also make a week, one week what they give cold and one week hot.

Socio-Dig: But, who do you think could prepare the food? Where do you think they would get it?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): That I don’t know. I’m just trying to offer some ideas.

Socio-Dig: Yes, I understand you’re just offering ideas. But do you think that if the food came from somewhere else it could cost more? Could they find it around here? For fresh juice, we know you have a lot of passion fruit.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): You can find a lot of grapefruit, oranges, good oranges that make better juice than sweet oranges.

Socio-Dig: What do you think they could give the juice with?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): It’s a headache now to put them in a pitcher, it’s another problem.

Unidentified Participant: Yes, it could cost more.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): No, they could just put it in a big thermos, big thing, and when they go by a school the children already have a cup and the cook is there to wash them each day. The same way the children have a cup to drink water, you understand?

Socio-Dig: OK

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): … And I see the last time that BND did something, they made an experiment giving snacks. They gave a snack in the morning to wait…

Socio-Dig: Is it popcorn like puffed cheese? It’s made with millet?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): It’s not extruded cheese snack, no. It’s made with millet. But there is another in the form of extruded cheese snack. I don’t remember what it’s called, no [says this last phrase in French].

Socio-Dig: Hmm. It’s made with millet. It’s sweet and it has salt. How does it go over?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): Oh, it was good. The children like it.

Unidentified participant: I never tried it.

Socio-Dig: Ohh, you never tried it? But it was a sample, it was a pilot project too.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): Yes, I had some, it was good. The children liked it a lot. If they ate some this morning, tomorrow they would ask if there wasn’t any more. (laughs). I said, well, there’s a little, and I gave it to them and after they finished it ‘it was good, it was good.’

#SUMMARY EXAMPLE FOR ALTERNATIVE FOODS

Socio-Dig: … As cooks, is there anything else you would like to add? You start making food at 6:00. It can be 10:00 when the food is ready. Isn’t there something they could do? Or perhaps they could feed something that was prepared the day before? Something that would be easier, faster than what we give the children? Even if it were not a hot meal. Number 7.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerce; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). We could give spaghetti. We could give a porridge. We could give a milk. We could give all. We could give a buttered bread (“buttered” with peanut butter).

Socio-Dig: In the place of giving the children a plate of food you give bread. Some buttered bread with a glass of milk. Would it be a problem?

Public: Very, very important. Very important. It would be good.

Socio-Dig: It would be good?

Public: Yes, yes. It would be very good. Yes.

Socio-Dig: Let’s say in the place of buttered bread, a local flour. We could look for something local. If we took wayal [buttered cassava with a glass of milk]?

Public: Yes, yes. It would be very good. Yes.

Socio-Dig: In the place of a plate of food, it would not be a problem?

Public: It’s a support. No. It would not be a problem.

Socio-Dig: No. You must understand. Bread buttered with peanut butter could replace a plate of food. The plate of food would no longer be there. You would not make the plate of food.

Public: Yes, yes, yes.

Socio-Dig: They would not make food at all, no. It’s like this, if a week had 5 days, if we said that maybe they could make food for three days or two days. Is there something they could give the children? In the place of always giving a hot plate of food?

Public: Buttered bread and milk.

Socio-Dig: You say buttered bread and a glass of milk. That wouldn’t be a problem? What else?

Public: Cassava

Socio-Dig: Yes, you said cassava…. with a glass of milk. Spaghetti would have to be cooked….

Public: Akasan

Socio-Dig: That would not be a problem.

Public: Akasan is faster. It can be prepared faster. It can be prepared faster.

Socio-Dig: With what do they make akasan, with corn?

Public: Yes, with corn, corn, corn.

Socio-Dig: Ok. You were talking… But like yourselves, you have children in school that have canteens, right?

Public: Yes, yes, yes

***

#SUMMARY OF COMPLAINTS, PROBLEMS, AND FRUSTRATIONS

#FOOD QUALITY

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). The oil is not local. I always say that. If WFP said they were going to do something local, know that they didn’t mean oil. I don’t know about this week, but they have an oil they brought for us. In the school. I looked at it and I see that I have to shake it. Every morning I have to shake before I give it to the children.

Socio-Dig. It gels?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). Yes, it gels. For me that’s not good.

Socio-Dig: Ti Malis [a local brand of oil]

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). No. No it’s not in a gallon. You have to shake it when it settles. It’s like pig fat. It gels like margerine. And you shake it and shake it and when you pour it out it’s white. White, white, white.

Socio-Dig: And when you put it in the cooking pot ?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: Since I don’t look in the cooking pot… I feel like it’s not a good quality of oil compared to what came before.

Socio-Dig: Ok. Is there anyone who would like to add anything else?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). One thing I’d like to add. Regarding the oil, I think that the oil they give there is not a good quality oil. I’ve observed that…I’ve never seen oil in a gallon gel. I wonder if it’s not oil from a barrel that they sent to the canteen. I mean, I think there’s better oil they could give the school….

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). The only problem is with the oil….The last time, they came for a report. When the lady came, I told her that the oil had a problem. It gels. She saw the gallon, how it gelled inside…

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). Yes, the oil gels ladies. We have never seen oil jell like that. It seems it’s made of more than just oil.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). When you put it in the water to make food it gels on top.

Socio-Dig: It gels on top?

Public: Yes.

Socio-Dig: Do you think that oil is good for your health, what’s going on?

Public: We didn’t say it’s bad. WFP never sends anything that is not good. They always send what is good. It has a good taste. There are oils that send people to the hospital, you know that?

Socio-Dig: When you guys speak, let’s do it one after the other. Number 7.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerce; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). There is an oil that sent people in Madyank to the hospital the other day. The woman said that she finished eating the oil and it made her sick to her stomach.

Socio-Dig: This oil, this is oil from the feeding program?

Public: No, no, no, no

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). It’s an oil they sell in the market.

Socio-Dig: But us, our oil, what problem does it have?

Public: Well, it doesn’t have any problem, no.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). Only that it gels. Nothing wrong with the taste. It’s just that it gels.

Socio-Dig: Ok, so when it gels it is better, or it’s because it’s no good that it gels? You guys don’t like the fact that it gels?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). It’s not that we don’t like it. Because they give it to us.

Socio-Dig: Ok.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerce; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). We see this and we say it. We see that it’s WFP’s oil. You’re working with WFP. We’re letting you know the oil gels.

Socio-Dig: Ok. No problem.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). Since I already said this to an agronomist this morning. He said that’s nothing, that’s just how the oil is.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). They put too many chemicals in it.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). It resembles an oil that is made with corn, it’s a pale yellow.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #3: (Female; 43 years old; School teacher; Philo; 1 child; 1 child in the program). …We had a problem with beans too. Twice I believe that the cooks made us see how the beans were. I would think that before they bring it to us they would look at see how much time it can last before it spoils. How much time it can last before they send it. Because beans spoil. When that happens, we burn them. It’s the same for oil that’s not of good quality, beans are a problem too …

Soco-Dig: When the beans spoil like this, is it because of where you store them? Or is it because they dry out? It could be humidity that spoils them?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). No. When they’re too old.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (BLANK_E; Male; 57 years old; School director, oversees canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program)     … The wholesalers, they need to make a little money. It’s me who’s interpreting it like this. There are those [yam] that are too ripe. And when you cook them, they are either bitter or they’re crisp [as if they’re not ripe]. For the yam, with the sweet potatoes, sometimes… maybe it’s where they store them. Because twice I put sweet potatoes in the storage room. I put them on the ground. When I went to get them on Monday most were rotten. But that could be the storage. When I asked the market ladies they said not to put them on the ground. Put them on a board. Now they stay good.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). …. The second thing concerns the yams. There are people who dig up yams, they don’t know what’s ripe from what isn’t yet ripe. Me, I plant them. There are times you can dig up yams, you think they’re ripe. When you finish digging them up you see that underneath they’re all white. When the bottom is white they have a bitter taste. That I think isn’t the fault of the people who dig the yams. It’s when he’s finished digging them up that he sees they’re not ripe. For example, you see sweet potatoes too. It seems to me that when they buy the sweet potatoes, it could be two or three days before they bring them to the school, they spend too much time on the ground. The time it takes to bring deliver them is what makes them spoil so quick. For the yams too, we find yams that are almost rotten. Because if a yam is bruised it won’t store at all. You understand? After two or three days it can spoil.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). The eggplants… Well, it seems it’s the way they harvest them that makes them like that. They bring them and give them to me and I find some that have completely rotted. I told the woman that. She said, ‘well, I can’t tell them anything because they’re not involved.’ And the cabbage they bring also. They bring me so many kilograms… but when I weigh it, I find that’s not true. Because they already cleaned it.

***

Socio-Dig: When you say that something is wrong with the food, in what sense?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): They say it doesn’t’ taste good.

Socio-Dig: The children complain about that?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Yes, because, you know, sometimes the children come home and they say, ‘Mama, the food doesn’t taste good.’ I say, ‘well, it’s not home cooking.’ [Laughter]. Yes, that’s what I say.

Socio-Dig: When it doesn’t’ taste good, do they not eat the food, or do they still eat it?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): They eat it. They give it to them, they eat it. They must.

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): …Now, what I can suggest … is to pressure ROPANIP to improve the quality of the produce. For example, manioc. The manioc always comes spoiled. Is it their fault because of where they dig it up? Because it’s something that as soon as you dig it up you must cook it within one or two days. I don’t know if where they buy it they then put it in a storage room for 4 or 5 days and it’s already turned black because when you cook it, it’s rotten. Maybe manioc needs to be replaced by a product that is more resistant. I don’t know. For example, if we take sweet potatoes, they can last for 3, 4, 5 days and they’re fine. So, what I’m saying is that I think they could make an improvement in the system here. They bring millet and often it’s no good, it’s no good. It’s no good. So, I think that now, perhaps they could replace it with corn meal, corn meal. Is what I’m saying clear?

Socio-Dig: What’s wrong with the millet?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): It’s spoiled, it’s spoiled.

Unidentified Participant: It lumps.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Just like how you find lumps in brown sugar, that’s how it is. They can bring it to you today, tomorrow when you go to cook it, you look, when you open it, you see that it has little lumps and the lumps are full of green worms. Green. And when you take some in your hand, you see that your hand becomes black.

Socio-Dig: Who else has something to say?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): For me, I think it’s a pleasure that they came with this program for these five schools. For me, I feel that it’s a graduation of these five schools. I’m proud of it, despite the difficulties it brings. Despite as my director colleague already said, we are obliged to spend more time managing the canteen. Me, like with the manioc that spoils, I think that it’s because they dig it up too many days in advance. The yams too were a problem…. The people who were selling yams were saving money because they gave us a lot of yams that were “manboule”.

Socio-Dig: The yams were what?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): “Manboule,” they are old yams. They aren’t dry at all. They are no good at all. Merchants who buy yams to resell, when they find yams like that they take them out. And the person who is selling yams to the canteen knows very well that those yams are no good. But they put them in as means of saving money. I came to realize that if it was us who was buying them from people in the community we would choose those that are good. But starting today I’m not going to be discouraged. Director BLANK, as we already said, we’ll put our heads together to see who we can advance. That makes me very happy, even though there are some hurdles, I feel like the way we get together and talk is good. For us to put our heads together and share our difficulties and search for solutions.

Silence

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): It’s almost the same complaint, except manioc also… There was a day they brought me some. They had peeled it and there wasn’t 5 pieces that were any good. I left it, went and called Agronomist Emile. I told him, here’s the manioc they brought me, here it is, come look at it. And he told me to wait for him to come by and see it. The yams too, it’s the same thing with the yams. They told me that it’s when they are almost finished, seems that’s when they brought them. I don’t know if they abuse what they bring, but they’re really no good.

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): Well… sorghum and millet. There was a millet they brought us that was no good at all. Not at all, at all, at all! There were some beans they brought that we burned because they had insects in them. The sorghum too, when you put it on the fire it stunk. When something stinks you know that you can’t eat it.

Socio-Dig: Does that happen often?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Not so often, not so often.

Unidentified Participant: They even tell us to put the sorghum in the sun.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, and Agronomist Emile said something. He said, that or wet it. He said they wet it and they gave it to us completely wet.

Unidentified participant: In transporting, in transporting.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): While they were bringing it to us it got wet. What they did is not good.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): Almost the same thing, almost the same thing for all the schools, except we did not mention eggplant. The eggplant they bring, sometimes it’s completely rotten.

Several other participants: Completely rotten.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): I don’t know if it’s that they leave them in the sun or what. The manioc, sometimes you peel it and put in the pot and it’s no good. There is a lot of manioc that rots on us before we can use it. There is no way you can feed it to the children. Sometimes you peel as many as 15 breadfruits, put them in the cooking pot so that you can complete the little bit that we get from the program to feed them. What they bring is not enough. And after that, as you guys said, you can carry the word, we have a problem in the schools, the children do not want to pay what’s needed to make the canteen function. Sometimes, I give the cook 50 dola. I must, she’s tending the fire and cooking for the children. Well, I don’t know if in the recommendations we can say something about the cooks who are working their backs off because it’s not easy, it’s not easy at all.

Unidentified participant: That’s very important.

Socio-Dig: All of you have that problem?

Public: All the schools, every one of them.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): I think that everything they said there is the same for everyone, I don’t need to repeat it all. Except I will add that the produce is not of good quality. Let me take an example. Spinach. When the spinach comes you always find that it’s full of insects. The leaves are eaten up with holes. Most of the spinach rots.

#FOOD QUANTITY

Socio-Dig: OK. Is the amount of food they give you always…. too small or enough? When you are done eating, do you still feel hungry?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Sometimes I still feel hungry and sometimes my belly is full.

Socio-Dig: OK. What type of food they give you that would make still feel hungry most often.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Rice with pureed beans

Socio-Dig: Rice and with pureed beans are usually not enough for you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): Yes.

Socio-Dig: But when they give it to you, you still feel hungry.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No, I don’t eat that much.

Socio-Dig: You don’t eat a lot [laughs]?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Rice and pureed beans can fill me up.

Socio-Dig: When it is stew does it fill you up.

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes.

***

Socio-Dig: Is the amount of food they give you enough?  Is it enough for you, or is it too little?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Seeing as there are so many children, they can’t give us a lot. But when there are children who do not come to school, they give us bigger helpings.

Socio-Dig: But when that happens, you guys are happy that they increased your serving? (laughs)

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade):  When they increase our food, we’re happy. (laughs) When they don’t have it, we’re happy too…

Socio-Dig: You’re satisfied? But is there no time when you finish eating and you feel like you could eat more?

Children: [Laughter]. Yes, that happens. When, when there is rice and mushed vegetables. [Laughter].

Socio-Dig: When there is rice and mushed vegetables you would like for them to give you more?

Focus Group 11, Children (Dupuy) Participant #7 (Female; 16 years-old; 6th grade): Since there are a lot of children, we don’t think too much about that.

***

Socio-Dig: At times do you think some kids would get more food than others? You think… You think each kid gets the same amount of food?

Children: Yes

Socio-Dig: Or are there kids who get more food than you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): No, we get the same quantity

Socio-Dig: Same quantity

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #3: (Male; 10 years-old; 4th grade): Yes

Socio-Dig: And you?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): At times when we don’t pay, those who pay receive a bigger portion and those who don’t pay receive a smaller portion.

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): Those who don’t give.

Socio-Dig: How do you see that?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): They don’t give all kids the same quantity.

Socio-Dig: They don’t give all kids the same quantity?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #1 (Female; 8 years-old; 4th grade): No, some get smaller portions, others bigger portions, some get smaller portions.

Socio-Dig: Ah. Ok

Socio-Dig: And why do they do that?

Children: [laugh] Because they don’t pay

Socio-Dig: Do you like when that happens?

Children: No

Socio-Dig: What do the kids say when that happens?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): What?

Socio-Dig: What do they say?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): [laughs] Nothing

Socio-Dig: They don’t say anything?

Focus Group 10, Children (Cholette), Participant #4: (Female; 13 years old; 5th grade): No, at times some kids would speak up to get more food and they will get a belt to quiet them down.

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Well, eh… all the school directors who have a canteen in the program in the past year have the same complaint. I think that us five here plus the others feel the same way. …  It is that the fresh product they give, sometimes it’s short. When I say it’s short, I mean in quantity. The quantity the program intends to give, it’s not what we get. And the quantity the program intends to give, what BND intends to give, it’s small too. Thus, if it’s already small and when they come you weigh it, and me, personally, there some things I tell them. Take cabbage, for example…. when I weigh it on the scale, it gives me X kilograms that BND intended to give. But because they came on Monday, when they come and give it…. it’s like they put it in water, it swells up, it gives you a quantity of kilograms, but the next day you go and weigh it and you don’t get the same weight. Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, you’re always fighting for Wednesday and Thursday. Sometime too, you weigh it… They would give me… I have 85-87 children. When I weigh it I always find it comes up short. For example, if we take the case of carrots. If I’m not mistaken they give us about 12 kilograms of carrots. When they give them, they have everything on them, heads, beards. You can’t cook the beards. It’s the carrot that you can cook [laughs], But they weigh it all. They weigh it, but you, when you take of the heads and the beards, it’s like one half to two thirds what you got. You don’t really get what they gave you… And then when the next day comes, you weigh it again and you see that already several grams are lost, they’re gone. The yams, I don’t know where they dig them up, but me, and I’m in town, they’re always wet, always wet. When I weigh them, for example, they give me 5 kilograms, 6 kilograms of yam, when you weigh them, if they gave you exactly 6 kilograms, the next day when you go weigh them you’ll get 5.85 kilograms. They always give you them every Monday, you, for you to cook them Wednesday, to make stew. Every week it’s the same complaints in almost all the schools. Me, personally, I know, I believe, I made the foreign lady, what’s her name, BLANK, we had to have her come twice. In the end I told her you must come and see because in the contract… Well, there was a time, that I even told the guys from ROPANIP, ‘you can take the food back, take it back…’ I encountered him in front of my house, I told him I wasn’t going to take the food.

Socio-Dig: Why?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Because it wasn’t enough. And when I weighed it, it wasn’t the amount they were supposed to give me. We went almost the entire year like that. We complained a lot. Finally, BND decided that they would allow the five schools represented here to buy the produce themselves. Now what worries me, my worry is that I don’t know if the other four schools are really going to get it, not that I feel I have it.

[Two other unidentified participants laugh]

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, we put other things in. And what they give us to, well, I’m repeating myself again, it’s not enough. What they give us is not enough. There was a day that they brought yams for us. They said that they had brought 16 kilos. When I weighed it, I got 13 kilos. I called the agronomist and I told him how much they brought, that it was short. And another thing they do that isn’t good for us, there was a time they brought the food in the night. When they do that I don’t have an opportunity to weigh it. You understand. That’s not good. Well, since it’s an experiment, as the director said, it’s an experiment, and we’ll just have to wait and see what works and doesn’t work.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): … And the money isn’t enough.

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): …… when I sent the fourth person the last week, he came and said, ‘ahh, my good friend, you know the misery I’m going through because there are products you can’t find and secondly, they’re expensive and the money, it’s not enough for the children we have, it doesn’t make it.

#COLLECTING FEES

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). In my school, I can say the school feeding program works good. Except for some problems we are facing. For example, I have problem where students do not want to participate in paying the fee for the food to be made.

And normally as you know, we cannot send the children back home for the fee for the school lunch. Although we applied all kind of strategies the children kept refusing to pay. And we realized some parents don’t have enough to pay for the children.

Normally, my school is in isolated area which is different from schools which are in town. There are some parents who have around 4 to 7 children in the school. When we ask for participation they cannot pay it. This is why when it comes to spending money to buy ingredients for the food to be cooked we are obliged to borrow money. For example, we are at the end of March, our cooks have not been getting anything since December. It has been 3 months. This is our biggest problem. Secondly, even to buy wood to cook is a problem. Do you understand? They used to give us briquettes, but we don’t get them anymore. That has caused a lot of problems. The biggest problem is there is no fund to move the program forward. But for the other points, we can say that everything is set up for the free lunch to function. But if the school feeding program continues like this, I guarantee you that we won’t be able to keep it. Because I will be borrowing all the time for the lunch to be cooked.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). WFP provides food. Sometimes the children go to school. You as parents, you do not have a cent. Did they have the right to send the child back for the 5 Goud fee and not allow the child to eat. That is what I see as a problem in the canteen right here. If the child goes to school and does not have the 5 Goud they will send him back home. It is not every morning that you are going to have the money. Do they need to send the child back home for that?

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). My name is Blank_C. Ok so they put the canteen in the school, the canteen is good for me. But if I don’t give them a dollar every day, the children don’t eat… When they don’t feed them at school, they’re killing me. They’re really killing me because when they come home from school, I ask God to forgive me because if they have hunger pains it just makes me ill.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). The school functioned very well. But this year, I don’t understand, I just don’t understand…

Socio-Dig: What happened?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). What happened? The children, when they prepare the food for the children, you must have bleach. You must have detergent. You must have soap. Soap to put on the steel wool. When you’re giving children food it must be well prepared. You know you don’t put bouillon cubes in the food.

You must have garlic. You must have parsley. I must have green pepper. I need butter. You must make food right for the children.

But this year, I don’t understand the feeding program at all. I just don’t get it. Every time I ask, when I ask…. Like when I finish washing dishes, I should have bleach to disinfect them. Then you put them in a sack and you tie the sack. The kitchen is not functioning well at all. Every time you ask, they say that the children don’t pay. The children don’t pay. And us too… Me, that’s what I say: when I speak I always say, this is the way to make food. The children don’t pay. Either we shut the kitchen down, because I can’t function like this. Every time I get there I talk and talk and talk. And I’m taking the heat in the kitchen. You see that I’m old. I’m 58, that’s old.

***

Socio-Dig: As a parent what do you think can fix this problem? How can the children get a meal even when they do not have the 5 Goud?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet), Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). This means money. For the money problem, they could have supported us. Because sometimes, we may not have the money, but we want to pay it.

***

#MAKING THE FOOD

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). But this year we don’t do that. … Now, when I get there the key is in the possession of one of the teachers. When I’ve finished putting the pot of water for the beans on the fire, I can’t find anything to put in it. I can’t yet find oil. It’s in the storage room. I can’t yet find garlic. I can’t find leeks to cover the beans. And if the teacher comes on time, when he finally gets there, and after he gives me all he’s supposed to give me, if I need something more, the key is in his hand. He’s working. When I go ask him for something, he says I’m annoying him. You see that I’m annoying him? No, suppose that a person is teaching school, the key to the storage room is in his hand… Well, me, I just wait. But I’m not happy. I’m in the kitchen where I am, the year went by and I was fine. I felt that the canteen functioned well… the canteen functioned well, well, well, well. [But now it does not because they’ve changed things].

Socio-Dig:… What made you fine last year but not fine this year?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). Because there were changes. They were not the same people there. … The agronomist always comes… They told me to feed at 10:30. You see that the food should be prepared 10:30. There are times you put the beans on the fire, and I’m the one who must go look for firewood. I’m looking for firewood to put under cooking pot to cook the food. Kindling to make it light. Ok? Some the beans are boiling, you must put water in two times [because the beans won’t cook]. And now the spices must be prepared and put in the pot while it’s cooking. Now, when I ask for the food, I must clean the rice. Then put it on the fire. This is when they are going to count the students and give me the food. It’s right after they count the students, to know who much food to give me… There are times I feed the children at 11:00. You see, I don’t need to hide anything. No, I don’t need to hide anything. We are having a meeting so that everyone can share their thoughts and experiences.

Socio-Dig: Yes. That’s right.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). There are times when I feel…. Wednesday the agronomist comes. He scolds me. And it’s not my fault. At the time, I’m preparing food. I’m peeling tubers to put them on the fire. The beans are on the fire. I haven’t smashed the beans yet. And what is the cause of that? There are times we don’t have firewood. There are times when they give me the food too late. You see?

***

#PAY FOR THE COOKS

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). But I put up with the heat in the kitchen. I cook the food because I’m in need? People need to work, right? I should get a salary. I get dirty. My cloths get dirty. If I put these cloths on today, I’m going to be around the fire in the kitchen. Tomorrow, I can’t wear those cloths again. When I make food, I need to find some soap to wash under my arms. [Sound of a child crying]. I need to put a little bit of perfume on me. I’m wearing an apron. But as soon as I’m near the fire that apron is going to get dirty. Tomorrow I can’t wear it again, I can’t come to school and make food for the children in dirty cloths. I must wash those cloths. And me, I’m leaving my own children behind. My children must…If I go to work, when I return, I need to give my children something. If my children need shoes I need to be able to give them to them. And me, they are always telling us that we can’t come make food with sandals on our feet. But shoes cost money. They should give me the money to buy shoes.

Public: Laughter.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). And I’m going there every day. Some mornings it’s raining. Rain, rain, rain. For me to get up and leave my house to go make food to give. Wow, why should I have to do this (a kwa bon)?

Public: Hummm.

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). You see what I’m saying? Do you think that’s alright? Let me tell you, I have 5 children. Five children I have and they aren’t yet earning anything. They’re still dependent on me. They still depend on me. I’m the one who must care for them.

Socio-Dig: Ok.

[Sound of a child crying].

Socio-Dig: I would like to clarify something. Number 8. You say that every morning you get up and get your cloths are dirty. When you come home, you gotta bring something for your children. But when the program first came, did you get training?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). Yes, I took the training.

Socio-Dig: Did they tell you that they were giving you a job or was it you who volunteered to participate?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). They gave me a job. They were the ones who chose me.

Socio-Dig: But when they gave you this job, did they say that you had a salary they would give you every month?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). They said they had a salary, and the parents were the ones who were supposed to pay it. And the committee. The committee was supposed to give it. That I was supposed to get a salary.

Socio-Dig: Ok. Since when did they not pay you?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). A ……every time you, you see when we’re speaking, we try to claim our right, they tell us that the kitchen doesn’t pay. The program doesn’t pay.….

… We attended the training. The training taught us this. It’s the director and the parents who should give a little money. It’s with what they get from the parents that they are supposed to give us something. But that means a beginning. We begin very well. Very well when they give a little money to buy spice. If you need a little soap to wash your cloths. Because every day you must put cloths on. There is a place in the training they say: we can’t wear sleeveless blouses for our underarms are exposed. We are expressly prohibited from wearing sleeveless blouses.

But that means every day you must change your cloths. And we can’t have just any cloths… But they said that they would give us a salary to go buy in the market, we would be able to get a little soap. But we arrived a point, the little bit they give us, I take it and buy spices to make food [for the school]. You do it because you have a commitment and you respect that commitment. I always must dip into my own funds. Yesterday morning I had to do this. The same way I have responsibility for my own home, I don’t like to have to ask you. Well it’s the same way in the school. I don’t like to have to ask the director or secretary every moment. I can’t be asking all the time. We know that it’s your obligation to give it to us. You give it to me. Sometimes they do not give it to me. I take mine [my own money] and I do it. The same way, when they want to give me, now, if I can get reimbursed. If, for 14 months, we have been working… We give good service, we have good will, that’s why we are still here. …

But we accept the job of feeding the children. This morning, it was raining since last night­. But we go anyway [to feed the children]. We go out in the rain, because we accepted the obligation.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): There are days, anytime you might go there, you see that people might not show up to make food.  It could be market day, ‘I’m going to see what I can make in the market.’  But if you had a little money that you were making, they would know that that they had a responsibility, they must be there.

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): There’s a problem that just came up…. It concerns the cooks, we have a lot of difficulties managing the cooks. As my colleague already explained, the children need to eat, and they don’t know when the food will be ready. And also, maybe their parents neglected to give him money, or maybe they kept the money to buy food. While this is going on, we’re having difficulty to pay these people. It’s not that we don’t pay them at all, but we have times when we can’t find anything to give them. Me, I started with two cooks. Since January, I only have one because the other found something else to do, she was no longer interested. For example, when WFP visited my school, it was someone else I was obliged to go get so that the food would be prepared on time. Because just one cook could never get the food prepared on time. If I have two cooks who had taken the training…. I don’t know what we’re going to do. Even when we call the parents to a meeting, they don’t give enough money to pay the cook.

#NOT ENOUGH TIME

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): What I mean is that it might be worse. The worry I have now is that it’s going to be an even bigger annoyance [laughs]. We could be complained now because, me, personally, I’m at 95% very, very busy already and that’s just with the school. I only have a little time now to give to the school. Now there is the canteen activities that they’ve piled on top of everything else.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Unidentified Participant: For me it’s an abscess on top of a boil. I don’t know if you know that expression, abscess on a boil, it means that they’re increasing the pain, they’re increasing the work.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Oh, the work. Work. And you must do your work well. Now you’re a slave. Every morning from Monday to Friday I’m obliged to devote at least 1 hour to the canteen. That’s just every morning. Sometimes I have a couple classes to give…. Sometimes I give classes in another school at 7 am, often I can’t go. That bothers me… because when you take on a responsibility you honor it. Well I think that BLANK-SCHOOL, it will publicly withdraw their contract…. Well, me… I just have to resign myself. I’ll try for the first month to see how it goes because you always must try, you must be able to try. But I feel that the way things are going it’s going to be more work….

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): … I’m the one responsible for the school canteen. I created a committee of four people. Two of us do most of the work on the committee. Me and a man named BLANK. This year he’s not there. They fired him. I’m almost entirely alone. I’m the only one remaining. When they told me that they were going to have us purchase the produce, before the school even opened I went to the director and I explained to him, I said that they’ve chosen the school for this pilot program that has us purchasing the produce. I said that if it’s me who is responsible of the canteen, I’m going to need some free time so that I can manage the canteen for the school the way it should be done. Well, he didn’t listen, he didn’t hear me. The 6th grade teacher they fired, ans so it’s me, he gave me more responsibilities in the school. He sent me to teach the 6th grade class. Since last year, I’m teaching 5th grade. I had some help from another man. But this year I don’t have any help at all and I must teach 6th grade. I’ve taught 6th grade before, but that was three years ago. I forget much of the material. No, I’ve got both activities on me and I don’t have time.

Socio-Dig: Most of you say that you have other responsibilities. If the canteen was to become an obligation for the school, do you think that you would find a way to continue to feed local food the same way you have been without all these headaches you’re mentioning?

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): … After that, I found it difficult to continue because I was going to go to University. I go each Saturday and each Sunday. … but the other person won’t go, especially on Sunday because he’s part of the ministry at the church… The school chores [buying the food] are difficult to get done on Sunday, he wouldn’t have time. That’s what made me stop in October and the hurricane came and stopped everything too.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): No matter what, I couldn’t have continued. Like I said already, I didn’t’ have time. Every Saturday and every Sunday I go to the University. I don’t have time to go to market.

#MILK

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). WFP said after the child had eaten every Thursday, they will give them a glass of milk, they have not done it.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). I attended training for that.

Socio-Dig: Number 3, what do you think?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). They said every Friday they would give the children milk. They have not done it.

Socio-Dig: Ok. For the milk, we do not know….

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Something I notice. It’s something they promised the schools. They never gave them what they said. It’s a matter of the milk for all the schools. They said that each Wednesday, every child would get a glass of milk. A year has passed. And a second year is passing. We don’t see the milk.

Socio-Dig: You never got any at all?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). No, I recall they made a contract. But it didn’t work. But I would think that in place… since it’s local products they’re trying to encourage, if they can’t find cow’s milk, they would do something else. You understand? Even if it was homemade juice they gave the children. If we gave, gave…. But we should respect nutrition and not push rice and bean sauce [all the time]. Even if it was just a little juice once per week. It would be important.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): They said they would give some milk every Thursday. But they never made that, not one day.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): There are some things they announced in training. Since the very first meeting they said they would give the children something. There are some schools that got it. There are some schools that did not get it. And we think that at our level that it would be good for children. And that’s the question of milk.

Socio-Dig: OK

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director): … there are two or three parents that do not give it at all, but there are a lot of schools that don’t get it. You don’t get it?

Unidentified Participant: No, I don’t get it.

Unidentified Participant: No, only three schools get it.

Unidentified Participant: For the entire commune?

Unidentified Participant: Yes, three schools in the commune that get it.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): The only thing that we wish you would do is that in the coming year give milk, isn’t that right director? (laughs). We would hope that the milk gets to us.

Socio-Dig: If the milk hasn’t gotten to you [this year], do you think there is something else you could put in it’s place?

….

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): Agronomist Emile told us, he told us that. I told him that, and he told us that they really did not have a lot of it. But the director proposed something too. He proposed something good, yes. The director proposed something that would be good. This Wednesday they could give one school and the next Wednesday they could give to another school. [a rooster crows]. Even if they don’t get it every Wednesday, they’ll know that all the schools got it.

Ok

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 55 years of age; 8 Children; 10th grade; Teacher): Even if it’s just once a month, they get it. The director said this, and I see that it would be good if we did it like that.

#FOOD DOES NOT TASTE GOOD

***

Socio-Dig: When you say that something is wrong with the food, in what sense?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): They say it doesn’t’ taste good.

Socio-Dig: The children complain about that?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Yes, because, you know, sometimes the children come home and they say, ‘Mama, the food doesn’t taste good.’ I say, ‘well, it’s not home cooking.’ [Laughter]. Yes, that’s what I say.

Socio-Dig: When it doesn’t’ taste good, do they not eat the food, or do they still eat it?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): They eat it. They give it to them, they eat it. They must.

***

#NOT ENOUGH FOOD

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Yes. Food is useful to the children… But the only thing is the food is too little in quantity.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Because there was a professor who did something that made me mad. I always pay for my child, but he took the food and gave one plate to my 2 children. I told him, in my house I feed my children properly. He provided him a plate of food for two. I did not like this. …

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Because normally, or before, the quantity they used to give me was insufficient. Right up to the present, when we have stew it is difficult to feed all the children. Imagine, you have times when it’s just a little bit of sweet potato, a little bit of yam, a little bit of stew. It doesn’t do anything for the children. It’s just a little taste. It was worse before. But right up to the present the stew isn’t enough. …

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). Regarding the cabbage, they take out a big part of it… [BND—or someone–takes a big part when they clean it].

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). … When the school opens its doors every Monday, they bring you those small sweet potatoes that are not even enough for four children. They may provide small sweet potatoes with six small yams. When you cut them to put them in the pot, you realize that is not enough even for four children. And they say that It should be enough for about 100 children. I think that it’s not enough. When they send the vegetables, they say that it should be enough for 2 days, Tuesday for vegetables, Thursday for soup, and Wednesday again for vegetables. What they send it is not enough for a day. But we just have to deal with it, we have to make it last several days…

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). It is too small… They give an amount to cook. They say a marmite for 40 children. It should have been cooked for 20 children. A marmite of rice is for 20 children. And you know children from countryside eat a lot. It is like a snack for them. If they could have given them enough to sustain them, it would have been much better.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). The woman already said that we only get a small quantity of sweet potato to put in the stew. After the children have finished eating, they’re not full…

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). …In the school kitchen, but the kitchen is very useful. It helps both parents and the students. Even though there are students who are not happy with what they give them. The training taught us this, that it’s a small taste we’re giving and not a full stomach. But there are students who want us to fill their stomachs. They want full stomachs. Sometimes they say to you, ‘what can that [little bit of food] do for me.’

You understand? Me, that doesn’t make me happy. You look and see a bunch of children your responsible for….

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #4: (female; 23 years of age; Farmer; 7th grade; 2 children; 2 children in the school feeding program; 7 months of committee kitchen). Excuse me. You don’t need to register my voice. But here is what I will tell. Today, can they give me three short marmite of rice to make food for 90 children? Plus the seven teachers, I must give them a taste. It’s not enough food. When the food is cooked it’s not enough. The person who gave me the food came to me by the fire, he’s angry, so much so that he didn’t know how to speak nicely. When he hollered at me the first time, he came, he said to me, ‘‘The food isn’t enough.” I said, ‘‘ok, give me some beans to cook. This is what you gave me [to cook]. This is what I’ll give you [to eat].’’

Now, after he came back to me again, I said, ‘‘You gave me exactly four, three short marmite to put on the fire for 90 children plus seven teachers.’’ The man was angry. They told me the man is angry. I told them, ‘’Fine, I’m not coming back!’’ A lot of other people said, ‘’You’re the one who took the training, you’ve got to come.’’ But I don’t know. When they give that little bit of food to share. The ladies must share the food with all those people. Hmmm!

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees, Public: … There are times that there really is not enough food for everyone. Not enough.

Socio-Dig: What food is the most difficult to make go around for everyone?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees Public: Well, stew. Only rice. Stew. Stew is no good. Stew is no good at all. It’s too small an amount.

***

Socio-Dig: When you have problems like this, do you cancel the canteen for the day or what do you do?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): No, we do what we must to feed…

Socio-Dig: What do you do?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): We do what we must to feed. When the food is no good, we put breadfruit on the fire.

Socio-Dig: You’re the ones who buy it?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Yes, we buy it, we put it on the fire. We put flour in it so that we can feed the children.

Unidentified participant: We put other things in it. Sometimes we put in plantains.

#PAYING WHEN CHILD IS ABSENT

(only brought up with regard to one school, but there should be a code of recommended conduct on part of the school)

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): But here are the problems I have with the program. If a child is sick, he spends a week out of school, I would think the child doesn’t eat, and so he shouldn’t have to pay. But the director doesn’t see it like that. He says, ‘you eat, you pay; you don’t eat, you pay.’ If there was a problem and the child should have to pay, if the children did something intentional. If he didn’t eat because he was goofing off, you could say that child ate, that he didn’t eat but you must pay. But if the child is sick, he spends a week out of school, they should take that week out [of what is owed]. He did not eat. He did not participate. That’s all the problem I have. Aside from that, the canteen is very good for me. Because the children come from far away [to arrive at school].

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): The canteen … It’s very good. Still, still, when a child is sick, he can’t come to school, they still say you must pay. And that’s all I would say.

#PROBLEMS GETTING WOOD

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). …As for me, who lives in BLANK, the advantage that director BLANK_X finds, I don’t find it. He has Bayaronde and Lila trees. But beside my house it’s Mango and Avocado, you understand? Imagine we have some parents who cannot pay for the school. But we agree for them to cut trees to bring firewood to school. What happens is that she/he cuts those trees to pay for school….It can be that he cuts fruit trees. That’s not good for the environment….

***

We had a parent that consented to sell us wood. Because we’re in town, he had to go all the way BLANK to get the wood. He supplied us for a 2nd month, a 3rd month. The 3rd month he started not to bring it to us all the time. We went 2 days when we could not cook because we didn’t have any wood…. He had a child who was in the school, eating at the canteen. That means that it wasn’t someone who had nothing to do with the school, who didn’t know the importance of what was going on with the children in the school. Finally, when I saw this, I had to forget about him and take someone else who is all the way in Rouso. When I got to the seaside [to get the wood] …. I took a taptap to go get it. He said [the taptap driver], ‘for 50 dola I’ll get the wood and deliver it to you.’ And him, he was giving the wood for 400 dola per month. You see the situation? Each school has its problems. 400 dola for wood and I must go get it. And it wasn’t just one hit I took. For the vehicle it was 250 goud ever time to go get the wood. When I took a motorcycle, it was more expensive because I had to make two trips. What’s more, I have 2 cooks. Those 2 cooks, one of them has children in the school. The child is in 5th grade, going into 6th grade now. We gave her 150 dola, the other cook we gave 150 dola. So, when she came she makes 700 dola, obligatory, to pay for the wood plus the transport. So, we took out the money for transport, we took 700 dola. What’s more, because the first time we did not get salt, we had to buy salt and then after that BND gave me salt for a month. It’s only oil and food they gave us. You can’t cook food with only that. So, with the canteen management committee… it’s a teacher who collects the money for the children, a member of the committee who doesn’t even have children in the school. It’s him who every day comes and gives the food [gets it out of storage]. And I have another parent in the school, who has children in the school, the child died, but she comes twice a month [people laugh]. At the same time Mr. Blank is coming every day, every morning at 6 am to give the food. Me, I’m there only to supervise him. I go to where the teacher is… I do the accounting… He comes and gives me a report on the food, things like that. The first month the teacher tells me he collected 400 dola, but I need 700 dola minimum to pay the cook and the wood. The 2nd month he collected 975 dola. 3rd month he collected 190 dola. And for the month of June, he finished with 65 dola. So that’s to show you that the problem with wood, the problem with the cook is a serious problem.

I think we told BND this, if they could help the way they did at first.

Unidentified Participant: Briquettes

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment):  continues: I think briquettes would really be a help. There are areas like here, we must buy it [wood]…. There are some areas in the countryside you can find wood for a good price, but in the town.

Unidentified Participant: It’s out of sight, completely out of sight.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Because when someone comes here, he brings a little bit of wood

Unidentified Participant: 50 dola, 100 dola

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): He wants 50 dola, 100 dola, it’s a big headache and it’s not enough to cook with for more than 2 days….

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): And to show you that the parents really don’t want to collaborate, we asked parents that each month the children bring a little bit of wood with 20 goud. Each month, eh. For example, if their on the path coming to school and they find some wood, give 10 goud, the month would be 30 goud. By the month, eh. The children don’t bring it. The parents, they’ll curse you in the street. There are children who do not want to carry wood. There’s a child down there, they told me that his mother followed him with a switch from the house all the way to there.

Unidentified Participant: He wouldn’t carry it.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): He doesn’t want to carry it and he has a parent, he has a parent who came there and stood out there, really angry, came to curse me. I said ok, that’s how you are, that’s how your child will be too. The person stood there and cursed me. I turned and went into the office, left them there cursing. Why?

Unidentified Participant: A little bit of wood.

Unidentified Participant: It’s not easy.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): Sometimes it’s the person making food who must go look for wood.

Unidentified Participant: Look for straw, look for straw.

[laughter] …

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): Couldn’t you guys find a way to do training for the schools, for example, for the committee members to replace the wood with, what’s it called again?

Unidentified Participant: Briquette

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): Show us how to make it because that would be very useful to us. It would eliminate the expense of wood if all the school had a large quantity of briquettes to work with.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): I think that what you said, to add something, we told Agronomist Emile this, couldn’t they show us…

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): Yes, so that we have less problems.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): He told me that BND doesn’t make them, that it’s WFP that would have to show them how to make them, that’s what he told us.

Socio-Dig 1: I know a person in Port-au-Prince who makes them. There are several NGO, like USAID, WFP that give them the paper to make them. They mix it with something else to make a kind of paste, like when they make cement blocks. I don’t know the details but that’s how he told me they make them. I think that maybe you could make them around here with straw. But I don’t know for sure.

Socio-Dig 2: Well! If there isn’t someone else who wants to say something more, we’ll close the discussion.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): Me, to conclude, what I see…

Unidentified Participant: There is no solution.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #1 (Male; 2 Children; School director; 12 years employment): there is no solution because when I analyze the situation I see the problem with wood is everywhere. The past year it was my father-in-law who was giving me wood. Every now and then he cut a tree near his house. Every week he gave me wood for the canteen. And when we had some money we gave it to him. What discouraged him, he would have quit already, but he said he didn’t want to create any difficulties between us, and that made him continue giving it to me…. In the end he told me he was finished with that. What did I try to do, buy wood and put it on the ground, have someone bring it to me little by little. And it was me who would go and cut it. And I always used a motorcycle because it would cost me money to get someone else to do that for me. Because I couldn’t pay a person, there was no money. Me, I spend all my time on the canteen. All my time for the canteen so that the canteen can succeed for the year. I think the biggest problem is wood and the cooks.

#SUMMARY STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS PAYING FOR MATERIALS

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). However, as teacher BLANK_F said, each school has its own problems. Although some of them have the same ones. For example, I heard teacher BLANK_X saying that he has problems finding firewood… For example, the person who is fetching wood for BLANK SCHOOL_B is from Sileg. When he comes with the wood we sign a contract with him for 300 dollars or 1500 goud per month. And we had two cooks who worked with us. The parents give 5 goud per day, which comes to 100 goud for the month. Well, we have to fight to get that money. It’s Mrs BLANK_X, a teacher who gathers the money. There are some months when she has to give reports and you see that it’s only 200, 400, 500 or 600 goud that she has gathered. Now you can understand the person [with the wood] who is coming from Sileg and what’s gonna happen? He cannot give service, he’s gonna be discouraged. He cannot give the wood because you cannot pay him. The cook that we had, in December she left. She said the money was too little. Well what was she is going to do? She prefers selling a little coffee in the morning. And she does better selling coffee… It brings her more money than what the school pays her for the month with money from the children. And the last one who stays [and works as a cook] is mistreated. She’s alone. We are supposed to have 500 dollars to give her to pay for wood. You can imagine now, 2500 Goud is 500 Haitian dollars. You don’t even gather 200 dollars (1000 Goud). And there are other big difficulties. She herself is cooking but she does not have any children in the school. She has no interest in it. And she is coming from 4 kilometers away to work. When we propose to the parents that they cook the food, they say it’s too much work to do. Despite the fact that the advantages are for them. And the food, we cannot cook it only with oil and salt given by WFP. We must put spices in it. We already know that everything is expensive. I think Mrs. BLANK_X is the one who works with the cook. She is the one who buys the spices to give to the lady. I think for the month she buys 150,200 dollars of spices. (even more). It is just a supposition that I make, there are some things that I can’t get involved in. It’s up to her and the lady. I don’t know. She gathers the money and buys things [spices] for the food. She pays for the wood, she pays the cook, it’s all of these problems. For that reason, the parents and BND say, ‘if you don’t pay, don’t send your children back to school no more.’ But it is the only strategy we could use…. Indeed, it is a good school feeding program for the children. I am wondering if all the school directors will be able to persist. Because it will be the same for all school directors who are in that situation. Can you cook the food without wood? Can you do it without spices? Can the food be done without cooks?

#IMPACT OF HURRICANE MATTHEW (OCTOBER 4TH 2016)

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Some parents want to give the money for their children but they do not have it. After the hurricane things got really bad. All the gardens were destroyed. Like plantains, breadfruit. The parents were accustomed to selling these products to get money to pay for the child. It was easy for them to get the 5 Goud. But flooding [from the hurricane] destroyed their yams. You may say, ‘how do they manage to manage to make food for themselves at home,’ but they create a way to make it work. God shows them a way.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Cassava, we do not have it. We cannot provide it right now. But other places can…

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Matthew took everything. I know what’s scarce. If they ask for pineapple, it is not going to be easy to find; a marmite of peanuts is expensive. Sometimes we find them. I say the most paramount things is the food. I do not know about the others.

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). Me, even in the market, I don’t see neither bananas nor oranges.

Public: Laughter

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Days ago, before the hurricane, we would wake up in the morning and give the children a small cup of tea before they go to school. We would boil plantains with a little sauce of dry fish. And then we made juice for him. Sometimes, as parents, we may wake up late you do not have enough time to make food. But now, whether you wake up early or not, or whether you do not have anything or not, you have the advantage that they will eat at school.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok alright. What impact the storm has on the program? Do you think Hurricane Matthew has had an impact on the program? Number 5.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). For example, there are many local products that we used to find. After the hurricane we had a scarcity. For example, we couldn’t find manioc, you understand? Well, we couldn’t find any vegetables. It was an emergency to find them. Now, the rain has started to fall again. There are many things that BND finds and brings to the school. That is to say, after the bad weather, there was a major problem around here. Right up to present, I don’t think anyone is producing plantains. They’re still growing [not yet yielding] right up to the present. It’s just now that maybe they have some that are going to yield…

Socio-Dig: Ok, was there a scarcity of other food, of the quantity of food you could find?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Yes, like other things. Fresh produce.

Socio-Dig: With what did you replace the fresh fruit?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). Nothing. Only rice and beans. It was in January 2017 that we began to recuperate. But there are a series of foods that they still can’t give us. For example, chayote, spinach. Since the hurricane BND can’t find them to give us. We’re obliged to replace them with something else. Even plantains we can’t find. Because there are none.

Socio-Dig: Yes, number 10.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). Yes, I would say spinach we can’t find at all. Manioc, we can’t find it at all.

Socio-Dig. But while we have this scarcity, do the children still eat the same amount of food that they used to eat when they got fresh produce.

Public: Yes, they increased the amount of sweet potatoes and yams.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). In the place of manioc they increased yams, sweet potatoes.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Yes. Food is useful to the children. It is useful to me because after the hurricane, you know there were problems and misery. All our gardens were destroyed, we have nothing. Now, when the children go to school, they [still] get fed [because of the program]. That is quite good. But the only thing is that the quantity of food is too small.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Days ago, before the hurricane, we would wake up in the morning and give the children a small cup of tea before they go to school. We would boil plantains with a little sauce of dry fish. And then we made juice for him. Sometimes, as parents, we may wake up late you do not have enough time to make food. But now, whether you wake up early or not, or whether you do not have anything or not, you have the advantage that they will eat at school.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #8: (female; 55 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; Grade 6; 5 children; 0 children in feeding program; 14 months on the kitchen committee). Let me tell you, bad weather comes. We have children. Everything we had we lost. We lost it. The bad weather took it. Ok. Our children need food to go to school. …

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees; Public: … Since [Hurricane] Matthew passed I’ve wanted to eat a plantain. If you don’t go to the market [you won’t find any plantains] [laughter].

***

Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): … you know, bad weather hit us and now there’s nothing.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers, Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program)… Compared to the journey by vehicle to give the food. It will be difficult. For example, in my area, since the storm, vehicles cannot reach us. Even if they bring the food, they leave it by the road. It’s motorcycles that must go pick it up. Sometimes I send children from the school to pick up the food and bring it here. Can you understand that? For the food to come it is very difficult….

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). There is a simple thing also. It can be easy for the urban areas. But it’s difficult in the rural areas. Compared to where the schools are located, you understand? Compared to the journey by vehicle to give the food. It will be difficult. For example, in my area, since the storm, vehicles cannot reach use. Even if they bring the food, they leave it by the road. It’s motorcycles must to go pick it up. Sometimes I send children from the school to pick up the food and bring it here. Can you understand that? For the food to come it is very difficult…

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #4 (female; 67 years old; No education; Trader):  … When natural catastrophe occurs all your crops go to the sea, you don’t even see the road. The water took away the remaining land taking it to the sea leaving only the skeleton (the bones).

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader):  I am “Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5”.  … Now there is no business. Since the last hurricane, there is no business…

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #3 (female; 5 children; Education unknown; Trader): I… If you don’t have anything, you just have to sit. As a matter of fact, not too long ago we had some activities, the last bad weather, it did not leave anything for us to survive.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): I am a trader of cosmetics. I sell imported staples and sometimes, when there is no hurricane, when we can find something in the garden, we load up our donkeys and head to the market.  But now as I told you earlier we must start over, that is the situation everyone is in at this time. On occasion, when our trade had crashed, we would sell our little goat. Or our little pig, but now it has a sickness called “broken hip”, this is for the pig. It will kill them. The goats, at times it would be some type of diarrhea that would take them away. But now it is not some type of the diarrhea that takes them. Not diarrhea. What was this Hurricane called? It is the hurricane that really broke us.

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #3 (female; 5 children; Education unknown; Trader): Yes, October 3rd really broke us.[2] We are now starting over again and then see if we can’t make five 5 cents.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): Well that October 3rd, God saved only our lives. Our houses were destroyed, chaos.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education Unknown; Trader): Nowadays the land does not produce anything.

***

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Nowadays it is hard to make any money because soap is selling for 30 goud in the market, a small bottle of cooking oil 60 goud, a mammit of sugar 200 goud, a mammit rice 150 goud in the market. Nowadays, you need a good amount of money to run your errands. For me to buy a small fish head. Things are lost. when you finish you must find enough to take home [some participant laughs].

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader):…  I am a trader. A Sara (wholesale of rural produce) I am a Sara, despite since the hurricane we don’t find anything to buy to Sara anymore.

Socio-Dig: Yes.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): We just sit. We don’t do anything.

***

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Yes, excuse me.  The plantains have come back, and they’re beautiful, yes, despite the fact that we haven’t harvested yet because the 3rd of October passed and destroyed our gardens. But the plants are beautiful now, I don’t know, soon we’ll get some plantains no matter what because I see that the trees are beautiful.

***

Socio-Dig: Can you say that you guys are Madan Sara?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #6 (Female; 40 years-old; 6 children; None; Trader): Yes, I can qualify myself as a Madan Sara because I was in it. Now we don’t have anything. You know that I mostly bought plantains to resell but there aren’t any since the storm. That’s why I don’t go anymore….

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 57 years of age; 3 Children; High school; School Director):  Hurricane Matthew began on Monday, the 3rd of October. I’m not mistaken because on Sunday, the 2nd, Monday the 3rd of October and, well, since the hurricane, all the month of October school was closed. BND didn’t give us any fresh produce at all, not for the pilot program or other schools. Because they couldn’t find any. The hurricane took all the produce. You couldn’t find any. They began again in January. Well, for the project, that’s the way it was. But it wasn’t the hurricane, it was BND that gave us produce. Well, Blank-School-1 wouldn’t have continued in the month of October. I think that that my colleagues are going talk about that. They already took their money since Friday on the 30th of September, so that they could go to market over the weekend for the first week of October. But Blank-School-1 didn’t take its money because it said that it would not get into that system again because it was too difficult …

#THE ISSUE OF TEACHING AND TEACHER’S PAY

***

Socio-Dig: Do teachers working in the countryside get paid for teaching school?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #6: (Female; 35 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 3 children in program). They do not get paid, no. Not getting paid has made them neglect the students. They don’t work with them. They never get paid.

Socio-Dig: What makes them not get paid?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #6: (Female; 35 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 3 children in program). I don’t know, no.

Socio-Dig: But you hear them complaining about how they never get paid?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Yes, if you’re talking about making money, I would never choose to work with children. But because you said yes, you entered an agreement, you can’t change your mind and say no. You accept it for the year you work. I work with a class of students. I can’t say that I’m not coming to work. I have to be there, consistently, every day, whether I get paid or not. Sometimes we get a little change. Sometimes we don’t’ get it. That can happen. But you can’t get discouraged with the children. It’s not the children who are creating the problem. If a teacher chooses to teach, he agrees to work for the children. And now he’s going to strike? If you do this you don’t work for the children, you’re doing violence to them. The children don’t know anything about all this [the salaries]. The person who is responsible says, ‘here is what can happen next year, but the way things are right now I just can’t do anything’ [the director says this to keep the teachers working]. I have my children in a school, a teacher agrees to work with them, and now you make them lose a year of school? I’m going to show you I’m not happy with you. Because you agreed. If you did not agree, you wouldn’t come to work. Because you accepted, you have to come to work. You, you’re supposed to be the teacher, but during the year you see things are not good and you stop teaching? But the children, my goodness, he passes the 1st trimester, the 2nd trimester, and then the 3rd trimester is about to start and maybe he’s going to advance another year, and now you don’t come to school to teach him. What have you done? The parents already spent money for the year. If they didn’t find the money today, he’s got to find it no matter what to pay for the uniform. They have to find money to pay for shoes, to pay for books and notebooks. And then the teacher doesn’t’ come to school to work with him. Is that not a meanness you’ve done the children. I’m number 8. I’m a parent, and I’m a teacher for the 5th and 6th grade. Thank you.

Socio-Dig: Ok. Teacher, another little question I would like to ask before we finish. On average, how much does a teacher make around here? Average. I didn’t say exactly, No. On average?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Well, on average you can say 400. Most could make 500 or 600. If the school has no aid.

Socio-Dig: All the class, or each class has its price.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Each class doesn’t pay, ah, well, ok, thanks [laughs]. There are not four schools around here like that. Only us. For little pre-school children, they can pay a little money. For other classes, they start at 1st grade and go to 6th grade. They don’t pay one Gourd [the children do not pay tuition]. The only thing they pay is the money for paper, money for notebooks and money for the canteen. When they ask them, they pay. After that, they don’t pay a Gourd. There are other places I know, ah, they aren’t like that. They don’t have what we’re talking about, children coming to school for free. Education isn’t free. That’s what I know regarding other places.

Socio-Dig: Ok. For this area, the government pays teachers?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). No, it’s the director who makes an effort to see what he can do.

Socio-Dig: If the director is not getting money from the parents, where does he get the money to pay the teachers?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). The directors [often] don’t get paid by the parents. Sometimes they ask others for help. When you see bands of children walking in the savanna [meaning they are not in school]…. Even the State, which began the program of ‘free education for all’…. It got going and then began to show everyone it was broke. The State is responsible for 5th and 6th grade. I believe it’s those two classes. As soon as they declared they are responsible for the children, with ‘free education for all’, teaching didn’t pay anymore. But with the SIGO program [PSUGO, the State’s free education program], the State did not say don’t pay for school. This woman has 5 children. If a school said pay for the children, you know that would be very difficult. You have 5 children in school, you have to buy uniforms and do everything.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). She would pay, yes. It’s education that you’re giving her children.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). No, no, no. It’s an example I’m making with you. I’m not saying you don’t pay, no. It’s an example.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). I would try.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Exactly. You say that parents should make an effort. But you hear them tell me, ‘I’m not going to send my children to that school because you have to pay for the school.’ But when people take the children and go somewhere else they learn that they will have to pay no matter what. I don’t know if you have anything else you would like to say to me?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). Parents yes. The State does not pay the teachers. How is the director going to pay you?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). You can’t find money, no. That’s what I’m telling you. You don’t earn money for the year. But you can’t leave people’s children like that. You agreed to work them. Is that not so Mrs. BLANK_K?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). No, I don’t agree with you, no.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Public: No, no, we don’t agree. No. We don’t agree with what you’re saying.

Socio-Dig: Number five.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). A hungry stomach is no fun. You, you’re a teacher. Since the month of September until today they have not paid you. Do you come to work? I wouldn’t come.

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #8: (Male; 45 years old; Teacher, Carpenter; 11th Grade; 3 children; 2 children in program). Mrs. BLANK_K. Mrs. BLANK_K, listen, I’ll give you a response. What I said to you there, it’s something I said clear. You see me, I know they responded, they said they would give us something. I received it twice. [this must be another reference to the State PSUGO program, but not clear]. I know that in some schools others didn’t get anything at all. I received it twice, but you know that other times I didn’t get anything and I accepted it. I take on a responsibility, [it doesn’t pay], and sometimes I find other opportunities. But I stick with my obligations to the school. If someone is only working at school, I agree with you Mrs. BLANK_K. If someone is only working at school, my goodness, it is not easy. But what if all the school teachers were to say they would not come to teach anymore? When they get to Little River, they must cross the river, that’s a big task. I think I’ve spoken enough. If you have any more questions for me I’ll wait.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Myself, I don’t have any problems. It’s a state school. All the teachers get paid.

Socio-Dig: Ok.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). After that it’s me. It’s a chinese hat [an expression]. It’s a private school. When I say private, the state doesn’t have anything to do with it. It’s not in SIGO [yet another reference to the PSUGO, the apparently defunct government program for support to primary schools called ‘Free School for Everyone’]. Nor is it in the EPT program. That means it doesn’t have any sponsor. It’s the fat of the pig that cooks the pig. [Seems to mean that the school must pay for the teachers from tuition or other income]. I don’t believe that education has a price. Even the State can’t say it pays the teachers. Even the Haitian State cannot say they pay the teachers. When you take a State teacher, they make 25, 40, 50 dollars Haitian

Socio-Dig: That makes how much per month?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). No, they give the teachers 15,000 Goud per month. When you divide that by 25. Secondary at 25,000 Goud to 25,000 Goud. But it’s with a lot of noise, yes. When you take the net proceeds, it’s reduced to 19,000 Goud. When you divide by the year, that is going to depend on what school too. The State says that it gives 24 hours of courses. The school can choose to give 18. Now when, when you have 18 hours, you give by 4, per week, and you take the total, you divide and see what you have. Which is more or less what you get at a private school. Because a private school will give a professor 10 to 15 dollars Haitian. That’s something pathetic. Well, when you take the level of primary school, imagine a child pays 2,000 Gourd for 1 year. From that 2,000 Goud they pay the teachers. They pay for the report cards. They pay for the tests. They pay for everything [from that 2,000 Goud]. Well, imagine, the school has no cash. It’s a forced march. It’s truly a problem.

Socio-Dig: Ok. But what keep professors from just quitting and going to teach school in the city? Going somewhere else?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #10: (Male; 51 years old; School director, oversee canteen; 11th grade; 6 children; 6 children in the program). Don’t forget it’s a choice.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). No, only is it a choice. The country doesn’t offer us anything. Many of those who have completed high school, many go not only to Chile, they become moto-taxi drivers. They go to University. Well, the few that the university takes, not even a 50th of them finish. And even those that finish, when you go for that education, how many thousands of children are rioting at the ministry? Smashing benches? The State trains teachers at the teaching college…. They don’t find anywhere to put them. That’s the reality. That the reality of society the way it is.

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. …Teachers in the school, you know, all these teachers are from the countryside. They say that often they don’t get paid. In your opinion, as parents, do you think that’s true?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): They would never work without getting paid. They wouldn’t continue to work. What do you see?

Socio-Dig: Ehen.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): They get paid something no matter what.

Socio-Dig: They get paid something no matter what.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): umm.

Socio-Dig: Even if it’s not a lot.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann), Public: You can’t say they get paid no matter what. You can’t say that. If they get paid or not, you can’t say they don’t get paid, even if the person says that he didn’t get paid [meaning they will get paid sooner or later, one way or another, in some form…].

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): But he has…. He has a date when he gets paid. They say, ‘if it’s the State that is paying, the money is never lost.’ You don’t get paid on time, but when the money comes you’ll get paid.

***

#SUMMARY STATEMENT ON TEACHERS ROLE AND PAY

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Teachers have to teach school. I don’t believe they would teach school and not get paid. Even if it is in a private school or a state school. The state pays sooner or later. When the month ends, when a teacher first begins to work, he can work for as much as three years and not get paid. For example, I know a teacher who they appointed, they went three years without paying him. Like Professor BLANK that the woman was talking about. Well I attend his church. That man spent a long time. They named him as director of the school Sileg. He went as long as four years without getting paid. He worked and he never got discouraged. He never got paid. There was a man around here who they appointed to a school. It wasn’t Sileg. Eh, Jean BLANK. I believe he went for how long and never ever got paid. After that, when they did pay him, they paid him little by little. A school director can’t not get paid.

Take Pasteur BLANK. He gets paid. All professors get paid. People can’t come to school and get their cloths dirty. That’s something of the past. Before you could go to the Onarak School [Laughs] and you don’t get paid. But now, these days, things have become a little more developed. All teachers get paid.

But, you know, people are working, they get their cloths dirty. You [the teacher] are not the one who sent the kids to school. It’s the kid’s parents, it’s their responsibility to make him get educated. He [the teacher] can’t come to school, he can’t work at the school and not get paid. There’s no one who’s going to say that’s not true. People get paid per month. But it’s true that when it comes to children, me, I can tell you that there are people like Professor BLANK who is director of BLANK School. There are children he takes that he buys the uniforms for, he pays for their shoes. Every year he has anywhere from five to six children [he pays for]. Sometimes too, other parents [who have been paying] get to a point where they can’t pay. They complain that he will put the child out of the school. The parents are saying ‘I’ll do this to pay and I’ll do that or I can’t pay because of this.’ And Professor BLANK says, ‘ok, you can send them to school. Send them.’

And nowadays, you can’t do it. Our own parents, long time ago, if you went to school and you passed one year in school, after that, in another year, your parents might not be able to afford to pay the next year and so you sat out for a year. But these days we don’t have that. The director does all he can to keep the children in school. Because there it’s a private school. It doesn’t belong to the State. The state recognizes them but it doesn’t give them anything. But they make money. They make money.

All the directors who work are qualified. They’re good people. They listen to you. They can understand you. Because they are always having meeting with the parents. They have to hold meetings with parents from every grade. What makes some children not learn when they come to school? I have a little girl who doubled the fifth grade. Now she’s in 6th grade. The reason is because she didn’t work. She was goofing off. I took her and I have her a couple good switches to see if she would pass. Because a child must work to get anything out of school. Sometimes the teacher is working and the children are off doing whatever they want. Sometimes the teacher is working and the child has his head down on the bench. He’s not even looking at the chalkboard. Do you understand me?

There it’s your fault, the child’s mother is not doing her job. The teacher is working with you, so normally the child can pass. If it’s the mother, if the mother knows how to read, she’ll put the child in front of her and she’ll work with her. If the father knows how to read, he’ll put the child in front of him and work with him. They’ll do this to help the child with what he’s learning.

But if you take a child, when children get out of school and change their clothes… You know, as soon as they get out of school, they are thinking about the house, yes. But as soon as the bell rings, and they have finished praying, they’re running for home. You can find yourself yelling, ‘LOOK OUT!’ A car can hit them because the only thing they see is home.

But it’s education. To help the child, you must teach him yourself too. If you can’t read, you must make the child take the book. As soon as you see him get out of school, you leave a little something for him to eat, even those there is a canteen. When he gets to the house you give him a little something to eat and you say, ‘Change your cloths and get your book.’ It’s normal.

***

#ROLE OF SCHOOL DIRECTOR AND PARENTAL RELATIIONS WITH HIM

Socio-Dig: Ok. As parents, do you feel like you have any influence over the school director? How can I say this? If you have a problem and you go to the director, will he listen to you and help you resolve the problem? Or do you think that the director will listen but not do anything about it?

***

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). The director will listen to you. He’ll respond to your problem.

Socio-Dig: Ok. And you ma’am. I know that your school director isn’t here?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). If you’re in the school of director BLANK, any problem you have, if you owe money, you must pay. All the time you have not paid, they’ll be asking you for it. They’ll ask for it. They’ll hold meetings. They’ll whip your children.

Socio-Dig: They’ll whip your children if you have not paid?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #3- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). Yes, they’ll whip the children. If it’s something they ask for and you have not given it. The children don’t know anything. They do not need to beat the children. But all the time they don’t get their money, they’ll whip the children. They hold meetings and call all the parents. They show us that they’re very angry about the money.

Socio-Dig: Ok. But if you have a problem with the director, then who do you go to in order to resolve the problem?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). I don’t have any problem that would cause me to go to the director or the teachers. Whatever they tell my child, for me, it’s “Yes.” Everything they say is correct. If they send my child home because of something I don’t have, I go to the administration and I give them a date that I will pay, so it’s clear.

Socio-Dig: Ok.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #9- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). Me too. Both of my school directors [where her children are in school] are good directors.

Socio-Dig: Ok .

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #6- (female; 58 years; Commerce; 4th grade; 6 children; 6 children in program). … I don’t think people should be sending the children home, or whipping the children. The children don’t know anything. They need to deal with the parents. The director of my child’s school is good.

[People are talking among themselves]

***

Socio-Dig: Ok, thank you ladies. I have one last question to ask. Do you use SMS? Do you send messages on your telephone? Do the majority of you use this?

Public: Yes, yes

Socio-Dig: Ok. If WFP said to you, for example, that it was going to put a system in so that wherever there is a canteen the parents could send a message to complain about any problem, would you guys, as parents, use the system?

Socio-Dig: Yes, number 1.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #1- (female; 34 years; Commerce; 8th grade; 2 children; 1 child in program). If you have a telephone. But in the end, I don’t see what problem you could have that you would call. It’s not important.

Socio-Dig: It’s not important?

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program). It’s not important for you to give orders to people when they’re doing their job.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). Parents who call and give reports like that, it’s not going to be good for your child.

Socio-Dig: Ok.

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #4- (female; 37 years; Commerce; No schooling; 5 children; 2 children in program). If they find out what parent complained, it’s going to dig a hole for you.

***

Socio-Dig: So I’m clear on this, I’m not sending you to speak to the school director. I’m asking you as parents, if you would be comfortable going to the director and discussing a problem like this with him?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). Our director, before school opened, he held a seminar with us who work in the kitchen.

Socio-Dig: I’m asking you, as parents do you feel comfortable going to the school director and discussing your child’s situation?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). Yes, if they send my child back home, I must go to the director to know why he sent him home. We always go to the director.

***

Socio-Dig: Number 1, you said that sometimes they send the children home because you don’t give 5 Goud, true? Would you feel comfortable going to the school director and discussing that with him?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). The school director?

Socio-Dig: Yes

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). No, I would never do that?

Socio-Dig: Why would you never do that?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #1: (Female; 35 years old; Market woman; 2nd grade ; 5 children; 5 children in program). I’ll try to get the 5 Gourd. Because it’s two years that I’m going to meetings about the money, where they talk about what must be done, how to manage the children. If I’m involved, we send the children home, I have a right to do that if you never pay. You have a right to send them home. But what can happen is that I don’t have any money, in this case you shouldn’t send the children home.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): We don’t have a problem, no. Even him, when he needs us he calls us. He says, ‘parents, if I need you I will call you, ok.’ Sometimes children arrive late, when he doesn’t whip them, he sends them home to you. You are the one who must go back to school with them [laughs]. Now you’ll go talk to them in the administration. If the child does not know their lessons, sometimes he calls the parents to come in. There are times he calls me in. I speak with him I say, “Director, why did you call me in? You don’t need to make me come from all the way up the mountain when you and the teachers can deal with this. If the child doesn’t know her lesson, you should beat her so she knows it.’ Now he says, ‘no, I must call you to speak with you to know if there is something wrong with the child. If it’s work that you’ve been making him do and he doesn’t have time to do his lesson.’ I say, ‘No director, it’s not the work I’ve been giving him. If you see that she doesn’t know her lessons beat her.’

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Is there anyone else who wants to say something? Do you feel that you’re comfortable to go see the director with a problem that you have?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): Yes, if the school director sends after you, like if it money that you owe, he tells you to come to the school administration office. He lets you know that if you bring money or not, you can rest at ease.

Public: You speak with him, you speak with him.

Socio-Dig: You feel comfortable speaking with the director?

Public: Yes. Yes.

Socio-Dig: And if you were to have an argument with the director?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): I have never had…

Socio-Dig: You’ve never had an argument?

Public: No. No.

Socio-Dig: And you number 4?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): Yes, I never had a problem with him.

Socio-Dig: Same thing?

Public: Yes. yes.

***

Socio-Dig: Like you guys said, if a child doesn’t know his lesson, they should beat him. If, for example, while the professor was beating the child he hit him in the eye and blinded him, how would you see that?

Public: No, he would never beat him in a way that would blind him.

Socio-Dig: No. I said it’s an example.

Public: No. The director has children too. He would never do something like that.

Socio-Dig: Listen, when you start swinging the stick, swinging the stick and the child catches blow to the eye, the eye is going to get wounded.

Public: No. He would not do that. The school director, he has something special for that. The little belt in his hand. And when you beat a child, you watch out for the eyes. You don’t swing any which way so that it could catch an eye. He’s take a belt in this had, and he’ll whip him.

Socio-Dig: That never happens?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): That would be a misfortune.

Socio-Dig: If a misfortune like that happened what would you do?

Public: That’s a misfortune, a terrible misfortune. We would talk to the director to know how that happened, for us to reach an understanding, we wouldn’t eat, we’d hang on to the director with our teeth until we understood what happened. He’s our people…

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): … It’s the school director who should taste the food to see if it lacks something. And then he could talk with the cooks. Because it’s the committee that he put together that chose the cooks. Let them give their names and present themselves. It’s not the director who chose them. Right up until today, the director, when they continue to cook food, if they see the food has a problem after that, then he will change them. He will take someone else. That shows you that he let them make the food. The food is good.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): We would never stand there and say that [complain about the school director].

Socio-Dig: You would never say that?

Public: No. No. It wouldn’t be good for us.

Socio-Dig: It wouldn’t be good for you?

Public: No.

Socio-Dig: Why do you say it wouldn’t be good for you?

Public: No. People would think poorly of you… even if you lived far from the school.

***

Socio-Dig 2: I notice that you all have many years working at schools. Do don’t you think that the parents could plan a role in the managing the food at the school?

Public: Yes, for the food, yes.

Socio-Dig 2: For that to happen there should be a parent’s committee?

Unidentified participant: Yes.

Socio-Dig 1: Do you think that could work?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): Yes, eh, do we see the parents?

Socio-Dig 2: If they could play a role in making this work better?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): In my school the parent’s committee doesn’t work so good. The parents could help. For example, they could bring us wood. It would be good. Because here in Ti Rivye we must buy wood. We can pay as much as 80 dola [400 goud]. You understand. And the parents, they don’t really give money. In my school it’s 10 dola [50 goud] we ask parents to give every month. Sometimes we don’t get it. You understand. Sometimes we must take it out of the director’s fund to buy wood. Since the school has some sponsors too, we use that to pay the cooks. That’s what makes the process possible…. But I would think that the parents could play an important role in the canteen.

Socio-Dig: Have you asked them to that?

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): Well, it’s not me who’s the director of the school. I always encourage the director to make the parents participate, to get them involved, have meetings with them and get them involved, have them participate.

Socio-Dig: Ok

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): Yes, the parents could play a role in the program. When the canteen just started there were two parents who came, and they spent two days and they made food for the students. But after that they wanted to be paid. They had to get paid. Since there was nothing to pay them with they left and didn’t come back….

Silence

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): The parents think, people in the canteen… they think we have a bunch of money to do the canteen.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #2 (Male; 0 Children; Teacher; 6 years employment): Yes

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; Child; Teacher; 12 years employment): That means that if you ask for a favor, right away they say you have money … The parents don’t really want to collaborate. Me, like, I often need wood. When they used to send it, they send charcoal just one time, the charcoal had just run out. I use wood. Sometimes when I can’t find any at all I have to go to my house and use what I have on reserve… The parents don’t really want to collaborate. You see what I collect, when I send someone to the market I give them 1,000 goud, but sometimes I can’t collect 1,000 goud. The parents don’t really want to collaborate with us.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): My experience, and I should say first that each school has its particular experiences. The professor here, he’s at a national school. Mine, it’s a private school. Yours it’s a, what would you say? Private mission?

Unidentified Participant: Private, private.

[laughter]

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): Let’s say, private mission. Each has its particularities. Yours is private?

Unidentified Participant: National, national. And his is a religious school….

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #5 (1 Child; School director; 19 years employment): He said that you have a big partner, he said a word a little while ago that, what was it?

Unidentified Participant: A sponsor?

***

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): There is a watchman here and it’s not his job but sometimes I ask him if he could go with the wheelbarrow to bring wood for the children, so they can make food for the children. You see that the parents don’t want to collaborate with us? 10 goud, 20 goud. A Little bit of wood.

Unidentified Participant: 20 goud per month.

Focus Group 14, School Directors Before Pilot, Participant #4 (Male; 6 Children; School Director; 3 years employment): Per month, eh, and a little bit of wood.

#CONTINUATION OF THE PROGRAM

Socio-Dig: Ok, we’ve arrived at a question I would like to ask. Do you think that it’s necessary that WFP continues the project?

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Extremely necessary, very important.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers;  Public: O yesss ! It would be very good.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). More than necessary

Socio-Dig: More than necessary. Why?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). I guarantee you, if WFP cuts the program, if they cut the food to the schools, many children will not be going to school anymore. They’re already accustomed to the food. Many of them will not go to school again. Because don’t forget that many parents don’t support the kids any more. There are children who come to school because they know they’re going to get fed. The child comes on his own. But if it was up to the parents, all the kids could sit home. For the majority, they can take a hoe, go and weed

Socio-Dig: Ok.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). There are children I know who are my school, when they have a problem and we call the parents, it’s like you don’t need to call the father or mother. You can just resolve the problem with the child. The parents have no control over the child. They have not authority over them. You understand? Those children, they take care of themselves, they put themselves in school. You understand?

Socio-Dig: I understand.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). It is inn that sense that I said, to take those children out of the program is to close the school door.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): It will continue in the name of Jesus. Because we didn’t know it was coming He [Jesus] tried to send it to us. Now it will continue until the end.

Socio-Dig: And if WFP arrives at a moment when it doesn’t have any way to continue, what will you do, as parents? You guys as parents, will you understand that?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): We’ll just have to accept reality.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Because when it came, we didn’t know it was coming. It was when they called us to a meeting. They explained it to us and we came to understand the project. The canteen would have been better, but even the director, the director told us that for four years they were telling him about the project before he succeeded. It’s just this year that he got the food project.

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): Me, regardless of whether WFP gives food, the school that my children attend will continue to have a canteen.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): It’s not only WFP that continues giving the food, the Monsignor still gives.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). …if they didn’t give the free lunch, it would to be another problem for the children. So we are going to see in next 4, 5 years like there is no school at all. Because when the children don’t get fed, they will not stay at school. The result is like they are giving a mango that you plant; you planted your garden too late, it doesn’t find rain…

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). It’s a pilot project. Well, I would think that the year is finishing in 2017, and so we would hope that the experimental phase finishes and the project is enlarged. Not only continues, but enlarges with other schools.

***

Socio-Dig: … In your opinion, what good does the project do? And why should the project continue? What’s good about it?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). It’s good for the children.

Socio-Dig: Number 5, in what sense ?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #5: (female; 32 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; 4 children in feeding program; 3 months on committee kitchen). Because there are times when the project brings food for the children. (laughs). Now, in the mornings, the children sometimes leave the house, sometimes they leave with nothing. But when they get to school they find something no matter what. There are those who are not happy because it’s not much.

Public: Laughter

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). In my school, I can say the school feeding program works good. Except for some problems we are facing. For example, I have problem where students do not want to participate in paying the fee for the food to be made……for the other points, we can say that everything is set up for the free lunch to function. But if the school feeding program continues like this, I guarantee you that we won’t be able to keep it. Because I will be borrowing all the time for the lunch to be cooked.

#RECOMMENDATIONS

#HELPING WITH PRODUCTION AD ACCESS TO CAPITAL

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Imagine, we already have land. We just need a means to work it. Send us an agronomist.…

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #10: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 5 children; 3 children in program). I think that the way that BND and WFP have a committee that goes around and buys, and since it’s already place, the same way there is a kitchen committee or a parental committee, they will come to where we are. If it’s 2 or 3 people who make up the committee, they’ll go to the market, check the prices…Ourselves, with respect to the price, this would get the price from the market. Right now, a price of butter beans sells for 75 dollars (Haitian dollars = 375 Goud). Black beans were selling for 70 dollars (Haitian dollars = 350 Goud), and just went up past 80 dollars (400 Goud). If, in the place where they buy it, they do not have to pay for transport to bring it here, it’s the same price around here, according to me.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers, Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). That’s what most encourages people to plant. You understand? Because people, if they can sell, they are encouraged to plant. Like in the highland, there are no seasons. It’s all the time, it’s harvest and plant. I have something I want to add. I recall that there was a plan. BND told us that they had some school they wanted to target. For example, … they could make gardens for the students. I see that project did not come through. But I see that there are several schools, that there are things they could produce. So that we could have a means to make them. It might be that it’s not possible for us. I have some land that if I wanted to produce eggplant, spinach, we could grow other things. We could produce them. For example, where we have the land. We told BND that if they would give us a water pump so that we could produce those vegetables. But they let these fall through. They’re not interested in that. That would allow us to have our own gardens. We would find fresh produce. And it would cost less money too.

***

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #9: (male; 22 years old, Farmer, Student; 10th grade; None children; No children in the program). I am a young person. I would like to see improvement. It could be the seeds, as my colleagues have already said. We often have difficulty getting them. You can imagine if you are planting yams and you do not have fertilizer to put on them. We need fertilizer to put on the cabbage. It is obvious that the canteen cannot work well if us farmers are unable to produce. We plant a few crops just to help our children. …… We do not find any new technology to help us move forward. We really need new technology, any technology.

***

Focus Group 2: Rice Farmers Kwaku; Participant #5: (Male; 50 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; No child in the program). …We are asking for more support. When you are selling to an institution you must have a reserve. We cannot afford to care for the fields. We only have a place to set our feet. It is like we are selling our toes and are left with our feet. We cannot sell all of it. How would we feed our kids? If we had the funds in our hands we would go far. Similarly, if your car has fuel, it will go everywhere. But if it does not have fuel it can go no place. If at least we had a bit of financial support in our hands we could work.

***

Participant #6: (Male; 66 years old; Farmer, Pastor; 6th grade; 3 children; No child in the program). …. WFP requests we dry the rice in the sun…. But like my colleague told you earlier, when the rice is boiled first, we get more out of it. Do you understand? When it’s not cooked, we get less. … We spoke about it January 2016. We brought it up with them [WFP and BND] to see if we they could raise the price they are paying us for it. For WFP to help us farmers to get a small loan. Do you understand? We would like a higher price, something different. We would like for them to help us farmers get a loan. Do you understand me? We would like a loan for us to work the land.

Participant #6: (Male; 66 years old; Farmer, Pastor; 6th grade; 3 children; No child in the program). If I had the money… there are many farmers who are poor. When they finish planting rice, they must go to a seller to borrow money before the harvest, to feed themselves and their family. But if we had money we would buy the rice between us farmers. Then, if WFP needs a ton of rice per year, we might be able to provide it to them. I was the first to start selling to WFP along with my colleagues here. We pulled together and we provided it. We had provided it twice already. Do you understand? But this coming harvest, beforehand, we would like for WFP to find a solution. To look how they can raise the price, my friend.

Focus Group 2; Rice Farmers Kwaku; Participant #5: (Male; 50 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; No child in the program). There is a question, I want to focus on it. We would like WFP to make it possible for us to get a humidifier. Because that device will help us to know the rate of moisture in the rice; so that we can know when it is ready to mill and when it is not good for milling. Because sometimes we mess it up, it breaks in our hands.

Focus Group 2; Rice Farmers Kwaku; Participant #5: (Male; 50 years old; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; No child in the program). … Sometimes the rice breaks because we don’t know when it’s ready. Sometimes we leave it in the sun too long and, when we grind it, it breaks into small pieces. So, we end up going to other people to purchase, so to complete the amount for WFP. We are losing. We are only selling a small amount to ROPANIP. But WFP could do something. They could check a humidifier for us, for us to know when the rice is ready and to control the humidity so that we can mill it at the right time….

#GETTING THE CHLDREN AND SCHOOL MORE INVOLVED

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). … We’ll make the children participate. You understand? In the activities, when you speak to children’s minds, the children will learn such things. You tell him, ‘here is how you can grow vegetables,’ so that they can go and do it for themselves. A learning session we could make with the children. That’s what I think. If we produce local, that should be done too.

Socio-Dig: Ok. And the parents of the students. What could the parents do to help the program function better ?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). Or say yes, it could work.

Socio-Dig: Yes, it could work.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). If it was me who coordinated the program… I would lean harder on the children to participate. The children don’t have to pay for the school feeding program…

#OTHER PRODUCTS

Focus group 1: Female School-Yard Merchants who are also Parents of Town School Children: Participant #8- (female; 64 years; Commerce; ;4th grade; 4 children; 1 grandchild in program) …. And in my way of thinking, eh, there are some things we could add. You know, when you finish eating, you should drink some sugar water. What makes them eat the food, well, it’s normal, they put the canteen in and they eat the food. But for me, if they would give a little something to make juice for the children it would be a good thing.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). …But I would think that in place… since it’s local products they’re trying to encourage, if they can’t find cow milk, they would do something else. You understand? Even if it was homemade juice they gave the children. If we gave, gave…. But we should respect nutrition and not push rice and bean sauce. Even if it was just a little juice once per week. It would be important.

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program)…. What we could add to what number 5 said, aside from the milk if they could give juice. I would like them to give juice.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #1: (female; 39 years of age; Farmer; 3rd grade; 3 children; 2 children in the school feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). Like they used to give millet. Now there is no millet. But they could give corn meal in the place of millet. Because every day you get up and cook rice. Every day you get up and cook rice for the children. When they had millet, it was very good. Now they do not have millet, they could put corn in its place.

***

Socio-Dig: What do we want to eat? A little song. What do you want? (laughs). That means if it was you who was going to eat, what Haitian food would you add to the menu? You would add corn? After that, what would you add, millet?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). Millet, cracked wheat.

Socio-Dig: Cracked wheat isn’t local

Public: No. Millet, there is no millet. Corn meal, rice, plantain, breadfruit, yam, sweet potato, manioc. Yes.

Socio-Dig: Ok. Number 6. You can stand up. I’m going to ask a little question. If you were the one to choose the food, remember the program is meant to support local food, right? If you were to decide what food would be on the menu for the children each day, what food would you give each day?

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). Like Monday, I would make rice with bean sauce. Tuesday, I could make corn meal with beans and vegetable mush. Wednesday I would make stew. And like this also, on Wednesday, if I don’t have anything to make stew, that depends, everyone has their own taste. You could make a vegetable sauce and bean sauce again. Thursday, you make a tuber. Each day has its food.

***

Focus Group 5, Farmers from Salaniac; Participant #6: (male; 35 years old; farmer; 3rd grade; 4 children; No children in the program). I would advise them to give a normal plate of food even if it is not every day. They can change the meals. There are six days in a week. They could give them a normal plate of food for three days and for the other three days they could give snacks. If they feel that the cost is too much for them, well, we know that cooking food is expensive. They do not need to feed them for the entire week. They could change the meals.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). There is something else I wanted to add. I remember a long time ago there was a Catholic priest who had a canteen he called…. He had a canteen, but the kids did not pay. He used to use some of the food to distribute a small amount monthly to the children [to take home]. I do not know what WFP can do [to give more food].

#PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). From my point of view, there are many things the parents could do if they wanted to. I think that could arrange a schedule so that they made food. When they did, the school could pay them. Even those parents could organize themselves.

Socio-Dig: To make the food come to the school?

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). No, no. They make food in the canteen. Like in SCHOOL_B, the woman they took on [to make food], she doesn’t have children in the school. She has no personal interest [in seeing that the food is prepared]. The parents say they don’t have time to make food. The parents could get together and gather firewood. Those who have gardens could bring spices to make food. Then the school would not have to buy those things. But I don’t see the parents doing anything

***

Socio-Dig: Well, and you as parents, what do you think you can do to help the project work better?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Like the money they ask for the canteen, we should make an effort to always pay so that the project can always function. You guys sending food from wherever it comes from, and so that the school could buy what’s lacking [condiments]. It’s with that money that we give that they buy spices, butter to put in the food.

#FOOD QUALITY/TASTE

***

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): But, like if the child tells you that the food sometimes doesn’t taste good, but if it’s something the food lack, if it’s spices it lacks, you [should] buy spices to put in it to make it taste better.

***

#PAYING COOKS

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerce; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). Well, what should we say to WFP. They should consider us too. They should look after us [laughs]. the same way they look after the children. They should see that we’re in need too…and don’t have anything. … Because bad weather came and we still have not recuperated.

***

#MATERIALS

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). If it was me who coordinated the program, one of the things I would bring as a modification, because I always talk about environmental protection, is the burning of charcoal in the schools. I would give ameliorated stoves or propane. Normally we are using wood in the kitchens, so many trees have been cut, understand? … I would replace the wood burning with ameliorated stoves or propane. That would reduce the quantity of trees they cut to bring wood to school… And me, I would borrow an amount to pay for the cooks. Secondly there might be other money to buy spices for the food to be cooked…. Normally the products they give us are good, understand? But these two things are a burden for us.

***

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #5: (Male; 41 years old; School teacher, oversee canteen; University; 1 child; No child in the program). Well as manager and responsible of a project, I would look for funding first. The first stage is to find the means to buy stoves instead of using firewood. It is simple, every month, every 22 days and every 15 days the propane gas is finished and so we have to go to fill it again and go back to place it in the school. I say the first thing we must have is the money to buy these things. Secondly is to look for the means to cover the fees that the children are supposed to be paying. You understand? At this moment [if they had the propane] I would not need money to buy wood to cook the food. And so now I would look for money to buy ingredients for the food to be cooked.

***

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). I would like to know if, after the food it gives, can PAM give the school anything more?

Socio-Dig: For example?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #5: (Female; 45 years old; Market woman; 9th grade; 2 children; 2 children in program). Like give you some benches, some books. I don’t know.

***

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #7: (70 years of age; Commerce; no schooling; 6 children; 1 grandchild in feeding program; 14 months on kitchen committee). We would like, the first time, there was a person who helped us give the children food. They gave us a briquette [as cooking fuel]. The briquette helped a lot… They must give us, if they could help us, they would give us a little briquette. We would say thank you.

***

#TURNING THE PROGRAM OVER TO A THIRD PARTY

Focus Group 4: School Directors and Teachers; Participant #1: (Male; 57 years old; School director, oversee canteen; Philo; 1 child; No child in the program). I might not know, but If WFP found a team like they have for the school feeding program, they could make the food with the school directors…. Because we must organize the school feeding program. We must manage the free lunch. Managing it is more work…. Like the lady who has to teach, when she gathers money it’s a fight, she’s losing time. She cannot split it in two pieces. One side stays in the room and teaches and the other one goes to gather the money…. It is just an example. I am talking about SCHOOL_B. When I present the report daily, I have to take one hour and half to prepare that report. I give the report to the committee that comes to give the food. And here we are, we’re in the middle of all these children. Today I am obliged to do it under pressure, kneeling at a bench. So, school starts at 7:10 and ends at 12:10 . So they come at 8, given the changing time. Meanwhile, the teacher, the first thing he does, he makes a telephone call. Can you see how we lose time? Every day we lose time like that. But that’s a supposition. If WFP could come here and find a schedule to give the food to the school on time, then for the food to be given we could find another schedule… I think it would be a solution. It would help. It would lighten the load…

#RULES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Focus Group 7: Members of Rural School Kitchen Committees: Participant #6: (female; 58 years of age; Commerce and Farmer; no schooling; 8 children; 2 children in the feeding program; 14 months in committee kitchen). But Miss, like you see Mrs. INTEL, the way that Mrs. INTEL talks. That means that if someone, how do you see that they can help Mrs. INTEL? These two women? Because someone who can create a problem is someone who did not go to the training. I believe that if someone did not go to the training they should not hold the storage room key. The storage room key is supposed to be with someone who attended the trainings. You’re a teacher [not cook].

#PURCHASING LOCALLY

Socio-Dig: OK let me ask this question in another way. If it was you who was in charge of the program, how would you manage it? Anybody can answer.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): This is a trap I see you setting for us, if we were managing the program?  [laughs]

Socio-Dig: Yes, how would you manage it to spend less money?

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): Well it is how I told you if you buy 15 goud and I find it at 10 goud then I buy it ……  I start to manage it, I have an edge. But when I buy at 12 and I find places giving me 10 to 8, now I find the profit. But I tell you very clearly, we don’t know the price, how they buy it, if they buy high or low. It means you look and look, every Monday afternoon they bring them food in the school.

Unidentified Participant: Yes, they bring rice, beans….

***

Socio-Dig: [Laughs] WFP is exploring the possibility of the canteen costing less money, because it costs them a lot of money to keep the school canteen program in schools. The program should not be only in the Nippes department, all the children in the country should be able to benefit from this program. But because of insufficient funding they cannot expand it. But if we could find the means for the Nippes program to cost less money, we could continue in other areas until all schools in the country have it. We talk with you as vendors because you know more about where we can find a cheaper product. And we should buy in an area and what we suppose to buy.

A participant says: Yes, I understand.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): Cost of living is high, everything is expensive

Another participant says: Things are really more expensive in the countryside, but when you buy it in the countryside versus the market, it is not the same.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #5 (female: 8 children: middle school; Trader): It would never be the same. Money matters, money in your hands, go to the market.

Unidentified participant:  I am going in front of a merchant and ask for price, if she does not give it to me at my price I will just return to my chair. When I return to my chair…. I will try another merchant. You must have experience to buy in the market, you must buy well.

Socio-Dig: OK

Participant continues: When you don’t know the price for something, a person should not tell you a product is 10 goud and you, you just hand her the 10 goud. You shouldn’t give it to her. You give her 7 goud. You can give her 6 goud ? [Laughs]

Unidentified participant: You must haggle.

Earlier participant continues: You must haggle.

Socio-Dig:  Is there an association of women around here, something like that?

Public: Yes.

Focus group 12, Market Women/Traders (Ti Rivye), Participant #6 (female; 3rd grade; Education unknown; Trader): They have become a bit tough, they are discouraged not finding the proper support.  Perhaps they could get support in the sense of women having a place where they can borrow a little money, like they were saying, rather than going to take a high interest loan at a big bank.

[Many participants say yes]

***

Socio-Dig: OK. If you they gave you responsibility for this program as a woman, as a woman, I would like each of you to give me an idea if they would give you responsibility for this program how would you buy? Because you already know that it’s local food they give the children. How would you take responsibility, what would you make them buy for the program?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Now, would put…

Socio-Dig: Number 5.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): OK. What I would do…. the entire neighborhood is going to know everything that is happening.  In the neighborhood, when someone has plantains, or yams, now that person is going to market, and for me, I would buy it. I would buy everything that that those women have who are going to sell. And Mme Fred, Florans, Mme Franck. Yes, like it was a market or Mme Franck could be responsible for buying from everyone who comes there. They wouldn’t need to carry their loads to the market. They would not need to go down to Ti Rivye anymore. Now, we know that then someone had plantains it would be something that’s already right here in the neighborhood. The person would know that Sunday … she could leave church go and make a chicken meal …

Now, he is going to know because it must be something that’s already in the neighborhood, for everyone knows that we’re going to have these plantains, or these yams, or these breadfruit, that they don’t have to go to the market with them. They’ll know that Mrs. Tony’s house has a market where they will buy from them, that will buy everything that the women have from the people who are marketers, who have produce that they are going to sell, food that they have that they are going to sell in the market, that they don’t need go to 6th section with it. Now, they’ll get money because I will buy from them, I will buy that merchandise and you know that it’s local food, that’s for the school because it’s local food they give the schools now. I would buy all the food in the neighborhood, and that food they no longer need to go to the 6th section with it.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader):  Since I don’t know.  Since it depends on the quantity of food, because people in the neighborhood might have the food, but I don’t know, could the people who come to buy, will they be able to buy all the food that’s there, that we sell? You understand? Because we don’t know, could the people who buy, could they buy that quantity of food? All those people are going to carry food because they know that it’ me who is going to buy or it’s Mrs. Alfred who is buying, they must know that Mrs. Alfred is buying all the food in the neighborhood.

Socio-Dig: OK.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader):  If the responsibility was Mrs. Franck’s, will Mrs. Franck have the money to buy the quantity of food that they will have to sell?

Socio-Dig: OK. Do you think that the food you would buy here in the neighborhood would be a better deal than what you would buy in the market at Miso?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): No, they will not give you a better deal.

Socio-Dig: It would not be a better deal?  It would be more expensive?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes.

Socio-Dig:  Well then, better you buy in the market?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader):  The people already know for how much they’re going to sell plantains in the market. She already knows the price.

Socio-Dig: But here’s something too, she won’t have to pay transport.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): Yes, she doesn’t pay transport.

Socio-Dig: She doesn’t pay transport, she doesn’t have to go through all the trouble.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): The only thing, if she had to pay 3 dola, I would say she can give me 25 dola, like if she did not have a pack animal to carry the produce and it was on her head that she carried it. I could be easy, she could give her 25 dola that I put as the smallest amount. If they were going to sell at 50 dola or 60 dola, and she had to pay 50 goud for transport, she could give it to us for 40 dola.  She could give Malanga or Yams, depending on the quality of yam. If they were yam that were going to sell for 80 dola, she would get 60 dola for it, because carrying it… Since our neighborhood doesn’t go down to the ‘Cemetery’ any longer, it’s only one market that we have, Miso. Yes, because the person must look to see if she has a pack animal. [Horn honks]. If you give me a price that’s not good, if the price is no good, I’m going to saddle my animal and go sell the produce at the market. I’m not going to sell to her any more, they aren’t going to sell to me. Now, I’m going to load my animal, she doesn’t give me a good price for the plantains, for malanga, or for the yams. Now she has her animal right there, as soon as she sees I’m not going to give her a good price, she’s going to put the produce on the animal and go with it.

Socio-Dig: OK. Thanks.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): Because even breadfruit, the way that people buy it, they could buy it at 30 dola in the 6th section. The seller sees that she’s going to sell it for 40 dola, better she goes to the 6th section.

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #5 (Female; 60 years-old; 5 children; None; Trader): She’d rather go to the 6th section, she’d rather carry it.

Socio-Dig: Oh?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): She’d rather take it to the 6th section.

Socio-Dig: Even if she would have to pay transport for it?

Focus Group 13, Market Women/Traders (Dupuy), Participant #3 (Female; 47 years-old; 3 children; 6th Grade; Trader): She won’t be paying transport for it if she has a pack animal, she won’t pay transport, because you know, there is no road for vehicles to reach the market.

***

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): Something else, it’s a proposition. I think that BND is in almost three zones with this local food experience. Hmm. I think that buying in the market vs buying from the producers they’ll pay a price. But them, if they would try to arrange themselves in a group with them, they have land, I have the impression that eggplant and things like that during the past 6 months they’ve been buying it fresh. I don’t believe they’ve been getting it at the market. The way it is so fresh for the past 6 months, it’s somewhere they’re producing it and they just buy it. That’s the supposition I’m making. Couldn’t they do the same for all the rest of the produce? I think that… What BND is already doing is part of us one way or another. So now if it stops, it will be a problem for us, and me as the school principal, if the school canteen program stops it will bother me and the kids will be asleep in the classroom. The performance of the students will not be the same as before. It is a question for me to contribute for the advancement of the program. My interest in dealing with it, contributing. So, we committed to get together to make sure that BND found the best way to market, if it was in the market they’re going to purchase. From the producer nothing to do with BND itself. So, all those products that we might not have at least to have some of that diminishing, the cost goes down. Is BND itself unable to go in this direction? PAM could not go, right? I did not say PAM. Maybe BND could not go as far as to allow it as well? Although it would not be for 2017-2018 but at least for the 2018-2019 part, I think that could improve the situation.

Socio-Dig: You think they could do that with the BND members or with the professors, school directors?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): The members of BND, that’s why I say it’s just a suggestion.

Socio-Dig: You don’t think that could work with the professors, school directors?

Focus Group 15, School Directors After Pilot, Participant #3 (Male; 36 years of age; 1 Child; University; Teacher): No, it would work with them also because it’s a problem of land. Where they produce rice, BND might not have land, but a school director could help the get access, etcetera. He could put the land at their disposition, rent it…. Corn meal, or people, I can’t work the land of others, but we can make a contract. It’s a form of… we make a contract, etcetera. It’s a matter of contracts and cooperation no matter what.

Socio-Dig: Thank you. Is there someone else who would like to add something else?

#APATHY

***

Socio-Dig: Ok. Thank you. Well, as parents…If you had the opportunity to change the program to make it function better, what changes would you make?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #1: (female; 55 years; Commerce; 5th year; 3 children; 3 children program): I wouldn’t change anything.

Socio-Dig: And you number 6, you wouldn’t make any changes either?

Public: We all say the same thing!

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #6: (female; 46 years; Commerce; 2nd Grade fundamental; 2 children; 2 children in the program): Me, I wouldn’t make any changes. If the director tells us that he would make some changes, it’s him who can make the changes.

Socio-Dig: No… Let me tell you something… please. It’s not a trap we’ve come to set…We are looking to understand how to make the program function better for the children…

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): I don’t see any reason for it not to continue functioning the way it’s been functioning. I don’t see anything more than it was working just fine.

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): And you, what do you think? If the canteen wasn’t good, it would be us who would think of what to do about it. But us, we can’t do anything. We can’t tell you what we would do.

Socio-Dig: After all, I want to say, you, as people who live around here, when they come with food, do you know where it comes from? What kinds of foods they bring? When the lady spoke … for example, you could say, ‘well, me… here are how things should be done.’ It’s as simple as that.

Public: We don’t see anything to tell you!

****

Socio-Dig: Ok. Thank you. Number 5, you are not going to say anything about what you would do as a parent?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #5: (female; 32 years; Commerce; None; 7 children; 1 child program): Same thing.

Socio-Dig: Number 4. You haven’t said anything at all.…

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): Nothing.

Socio-Dig: Nothing. There is nothing you can do as a parent?

Focus Group 6: Parents of Rural School Children (Fondelyann): Participant #4: (female; 32 years; farmers; 5th year fundamental; 3 children; 2 children in the program): No.

***

Socio-Dig: As a parent what do you think can fix this problem? How can the children get a meal even though he does not have the 5 Goud?

Focus Group 3, Rural Parents and Members of School Kitchen Committee (Cholet): Participant #3: (Female; 38 years old; Market woman; 3rd grade; 7 children; 6 children in program). This means money.

[1]  1 mammit = 5.75 lbs of rice or 5.5 lbs of beans

[2] “Twa Oktob,” 3rd of October, the date of Hurricane Mathew hitin 2016 and a reminder of what the elderly referred to as Douz Oktob, 12th of October, when Hurricane Hazel hit in 1954.

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