Bon-Dieu and the Rites of Passage in Rural Haiti: Structural Determinants of Postcolonial Theology and Ritual

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The Catholicism of more than one postcolonial group in the New World has been described as a surface veneer masking a much deeper commitment to non-European cultural forms and value? A number of careful studies have been done of Haitian voodoo and the authors generally allude in passing to the superficial nature of Catholic elements in the cult. My own research among Haitian peasants has turned a number of important non-Christian elements. But m this chapter, I will show that the religious lives of even the most ardent Voodoo cultists are not only permeated with, but clearly dominated by the rites and beliefs of institutional Catholicism in a manner that renders empirically untenable, and theoretically questionable, any statements about “non-Western religion.” I will further show that such religious subordination has been created, not by the Catholic Church itself, but by Haitian rulers. And I will argue that the conventional downplaying of these western elements in the analysis of New World folk-cults creates theoretical obstacles to the accurate identification of a major mechanism of postcolonial dependence. In proposing such an analysis, I will be addressing myself to the larger issue of the social and political functions of religion in general, and will hopefully be contributing to a reassessment of other New World postcolonial cults which have also been labelled, perhaps prematurely, as “non-western.”



The Phantom Child in Haitian Voodoo: A Folk Religious Model of Uterine Life

There is an interesting analogy between the reaction of the outside world to the popular language of Haiti on the one hand and, on the other to the popular religion. The language spoken by the Haitian people, Creole, used to be dismissed as merely a form of broken French. Scientific analysis of the structure of Creole, however, reveals that it is not a dialect of French (Hall, 1953: Valdman, 1980). Though possessing a French-derived vocabulary, Creole has an internal syntactic structure that in several crucial ways is quite unlike that of French and some scholars have posited West Africa elements in Creole clause structure.

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Voodoo in Haiti

As an anthropologist, I became interested in learning about life in Haitian villages. Despite a tightly controlled government (“Baby Doc” had succeeded his father “Papa Doc”), I was able to secure permission to settle into a small village with my wife to carry out two years of research. I was warned to stay away from Voodoo. Too many foreigners had spent too much time indulging their curiosity about this exotic cult I was told. I agreed. I preferred to learn about “the real Haiti” the economic and domestic organisation of village life.

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Population Pressure, Land Tenure, and Voodoo: The Economics of Haitian Peasant Ritual

In the following pages, I will present both descriptive and quantitative information, gathered in a Haitian village during 21 months of fieldwork. information reveals the somewhat unexpected but empirically convincing and critical role which Haitian-peasant Voodoo plays in the contemporary land tenure system; specifically, this cult was found to function as a partially camouflaged resource-circulating mechanism, a role that seems to have arisen in the context of recent population growth.

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